Would Jesus Eat Meat Today?
Perhaps not. Here’s why
Modern animal agriculture causes immense pain and suffering to
animals, harms the environment, and damages our health. Yet many Christians believe that the Bible gives us permission to eat animals.
Can Christian teachings and principles help guide our food choices?
As Christians, we are called to serve God, which means that we must be mindful of how our choices affect God and God’s Creation. The Bible relates that God gave humanity “dominion” over creation (Genesis 1:26), and we see this as a sacred responsibility, not a license to ruin the environment and torment God’s creatures. Indeed, many of the world’s problems are due to human heartlessness and self-indulgence. Moving toward a plant-based diet is a responsible, effective, and faithful way to serve God and to protect God’s Creation.
How is vegetarianism good stewardship?
In Genesis 2:15, God instructed Adam to “till” and “keep” the
Garden of Eden, and by analogy we may see caring for God’s
Creation as our sacred task. The typical meat eater’s diet can
require up to 14 times more water and 20 times more energy than
that of a vegetarian. Indeed, current use of land, water, and
energy is not sustainable; resource depletion threatens to cause
hardships for humankind this century.
A 2006 report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations found that animal agriculture is a leading cause
of climate change and air pollution; land, soil, and water
degradation; and biodiversity loss. According to the report, the
livestock sector is an even larger contributor to global warming
than transport (cars, trucks, airplanes, and so forth). Huge
quantities of the potent greenhouse gases methane and nitrous
oxide are emitted by farmed animals and their waste. Animal
agriculture is also a key factor in deforestation, which
releases the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The total area used
for grazing and the production of feed crops accounts for 70
percent of all agricultural land and 30 percent of the earth’s
land surface. About 20 percent of the world’s pastures and
rangelands have been degraded (over 70 percent in the dry
lands), mostly through overgrazing, compaction, and erosion
created by livestock action.
Jesus preached, “For I was hungry and you gave me food.… [A]s
you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it
to me” (Matt. 25:35, 40 RSV). Yet, while tens of millions of
people die annually from starvation--related causes and close to
a billion suffer from malnutrition, 37 percent of the world’s
harvested grain is fed to animals being raised for slaughter; in
the United States, the figure is 66 percent.
Only a fraction of what chickens, pigs, and other animals eat
makes them grow edible flesh—most is needed to simply keep them
alive or to grow body parts that people don’t eat. Consequently,
farmed animals consume much more food than they produce.
Converting plant foods to meat wastes 67–90 percent of the
protein, up to 96 percent of the calories, and all of the fiber.
Because land, water, and other resources are limited, the world
can support many more vegetarians than meat eaters. As worldwide
demand for meat has grown, the net effect is that the world’s
poor have become increasingly unable to afford food of any kind.
Jesus said that God feeds the
birds of the air (Matt. 6:26) and does not forget sparrows (Luke
12:6). The Hebrew Scriptures forbid inhumane slaughter or
cruelty toward beasts of burden (Exod. 23:5; Deut. 22:6–7,
25:4). Yet, in the United States, virtually all food derived
from animals is obtained through intensive factory farming
methods. In fact, nearly ten billion land animals are
slaughtered each year, over a million every hour, and the number
of aquatic animals killed for food is far greater. These animals
suffer greatly from stressful crowding, barren environments that
frustrate their instinctive drives, mutilations and amputations
without pain relief (including debeaking, dehorning, tail
docking, and castration), and other painful procedures (Bernard
Rollin, Ph.D., Farm Animal Welfare).
For example, farmers crowd
egg--laying hens in cages so small they can’t spread their
wings. Some birds are immobilized when their feet get caught in
the wire mesh; unable to reach food, they starve to death.
Millions of chicks are mailed via the U.S. Postal Service each
year. Although mortality rates are high, chicks are deemed cheap
and not worth the cost of humane transport. It seems that
contemporary farmers embrace any practice that increases
productivity, regardless of how much animal pain and suffering
During transport to slaughter,
animals are often handled roughly and exposed to extremes of
heat or cold. Finally, slaughter typically involves terror and,
often, great pain (Gail Eisnitz, Slaughterhouse). Illustrating
the industry’s callousness, animals too sick to walk are
painfully dragged to slaughter rather than humanely euthanized.
Typical of the industry’s attitude, Hog Farm Management advised,
“Forget the pig is an animal. Treat him just like a machine in a
If we eat the products of factory
farming we are, Fr. John Dear notes, “paying people to be
The apostle Paul wrote that our bodies are
temples of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 6:19), and it follows that we
should care for our bodies as gifts from God. The largest
organization of food and nutrition professionals in the United
States, the American Dietetic Association, has endorsed well-planned
vegetarian diets. In 2003, the ADA noted, “Vegetarians have been
reported to have lower body mass indices than nonvegetarians, as
well as lower rates of death from ischemic heart disease;
vegetarians also show lower blood cholesterol levels; lower blood
pressure; and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and
prostate and colon cancer.”
In contrast to the predominantly plant-based
Mediterranean diet that Jesus ate, modern Western diets (heavily
laden with animal products) put people at risk. For example, animal
foods tend to be high in saturated fat and cholesterol, which
elevate blood lipids and increase the risk of heart disease—by far,
the number one killer in the West. Because farmed animals are bred
to grow quickly and given little exercise, their flesh is
particularly high in saturated fats. In contrast, unsaturated fats
in plant foods generally improve one’s lipid profile and reduce
heart disease risk.
Numerous studies show this. The
Cornell-Oxford-China Project found that rural Chinese people, who
eat much less animal fat and protein and derive the bulk of their
nutrition from plant sources, have far less heart disease mortality
and much lower cholesterol levels than Americans or urban Chinese
people who eat a more Western diet.
Regarding obesity and diabetes, fiber in fruits,
vegetables, legumes (beans), oats, and barley helps people feel
full, which discourages overeating. In study after study,
vegetarians weigh less and have an easier time maintaining a healthy
weight than their meat-eating peers.
Does the Bible support vegetarianism?
The Bible depicts vegetarianism as God’s ideal,
and the diet conforms to the central biblical principle of
steward-ship. In Eden, all creatures lived peacefully, and God told
both humans and animals to consume only plant foods (Gen. 1:29–31).
Several prophecies, such as Isaiah 11:6–9, foresee a return to this
vegetarian world, where the wolf, lamb, lion, cow, bear, snake, and
little child all coexist peacefully. Christian vegetarians, while
acknowledging human sinfulness, believe we should strive toward the
harmonious world Isaiah envisioned—to try to live in accordance with
the prayer that Jesus taught us, “Thy kingdom come, Thy will be
done, On earth as it is in heaven” (Matt. 6:10).
Did God put animals here for our use?
Adam’s “dominion” over animals (Gen. 1:26, 28), we
believe, conveys sacred stewardship, since God immediately afterward
prescribed a vegetarian diet (1:29–30) in a world God found “very
good” (1:31). Created in God’s image of love (1 John 4:8), we are
called to be care-takers of God’s Creation, not tyrants over God’s
Genesis 1:21–22 relates that, before God created
humanity, God regarded the animals “good” and blessed them. Further
evidence that we should consider animals as inherently valuable
comes from Genesis 2:18–19, which indicates that God made animals as
Adam’s helpers and companions: “Then the Lord God said, ‘It is not
good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for
him.’ So out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the
field and every bird of the air, and brought them to the man to see
what he would call them…” (RSV). Adam named the animals, which we
believe shows concern and friendship. We don’t name the animals we
God endowed pigs, cattle, sheep, and all farmed
animals with their own desires and needs, which is apparent when
these animals are given an opportunity to enjoy life. For example,
pigs are as curious, social, and intelligent as cats or dogs. Pigs
can even play some video games better than monkeys. Similarly,
chickens enjoy one another’s company and like to play, dust bathe,
and forage for food. Jesus compared his love for us to a hen’s love
for her chicks (Luke 13:34).
Why did God give Noah permission to eat
meat (Gen. 9:2–4)?
Virtually all plants were destroyed by the Flood.
Alternatively, God may have allowed Noah limited freedom to express
human violence, since unrestrained violence was responsible for the
Flood itself (Gen. 6:11–13). Importantly, this passage neither
commands meat eating nor indicates that the practice is God’s ideal.
Indeed, eating meat came with a curse—animals would no longer be
humanity’s friends: “The fear of you and the dread of you shall be
upon every beast…” (Gen. 9:2). While eating meat was not prohibited,
it represented a complete break from God’s ideal of animals and
humans living peacefully together, as depicted in Eden and by the
Does God care for animals?
Proverbs 12:10 teaches, “A righteous man has regard for the life
of his beast,” and Psalm 145:9 reminds us that “The Lord is good to
all, and his compassion is over all that he has made.”
The Bible describes God’s concern for animals repeatedly (Matt.
10:29, 12:11–12, 18:12–14) and forbids cruelty (Deut. 22:10, 25:4).
Importantly, after the Flood, God made a covenant, stated five
times, with animals as well as humans. All creatures share in the
Sabbath rest (Exod. 20:10; Deut. 5:14). The Bible describes animals
praising God (Pss. 148:7–10, 150:6), shows animals present in
eternity (Isa. 65:25; Rev. 5:13), and affirms that God preserves
animals (Ps. 36:6; Eph. 1:10; Col. 1:20). Animals and humans look to
God for sustenance (Pss. 104:27–31, 147:9; Matt. 6:26; Luke 12:6)
and deliverance (Jon. 3:7–9; Rom. 8:18–23). God’s covenant in
Genesis 9, in all five instances, is with all flesh, not just
Does vegetarianism equate human and animal
Vegetarianism simply reflects respect for Creation—the
diet benefits humans, animals, and the environment.
What about animal sacrifices?
The Bible relates that God accepted animal sacrifices.
However, several later prophets objected to sacrifice, emphasizing
that God prefers righteousness. Animal sacrifices are not required
or even desired now, for at least two reasons. First, Paul encouraged
self-sacrifice, writing, “[P]resent your bodies as a living
sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship”
(Romans 12:1). Second, traditional interpretations of Jesus’
death affirm that, because of him, animal sacrifice is no longer
necessary. Christians, being new creations in Christ, may model
Christ by choosing a loving relationship with all Creation. Indeed,
Jesus twice quoted Hosea (6:6), saying, “I desire mercy and
not sacrifice” (Matthew 9:13, 12:7).
Didn’t Jesus eat meat?
Luke 24:43 describes Jesus eating fish after the
Resurrection. However, Jesus’ diet 2,000 years ago in a Mediterranean
fishing community does not mandate what Christians should eat today.
Similarly, what Jesus wore does not dictate how we should dress
today. We are blessed with a wide range of healthful, tasty, convenient
plant foods, much like in Eden. Meanwhile, we believe that the way
animals are treated today makes a mockery of God’s love for
Are meat eaters sinners?
The Bible does not prohibit eating meat in all
circumstances. While many people have eaten meat for nourishment,
most Christians today have ready access to a wide variety of
healthful plant foods. Many Christian vegetarians find modern
factory farming particularly objectionable because it is unnecessary
What does the Bible say about eating meat?
Diet is a major theme in the Bible. At
ChristianVeg.org/hgc-replies.htm, we discuss biblical passages
frequently cited by those who defend meat eating.
Have there been many vegetarian Christians?
Our numbers are increasing rapidly, just as vegetarianism
is growing in the general population. Also, many early Christians
were vegetarian, including the Desert Fathers. Since then, the Trappist,
Benedictine, and Carthusian orders have encouraged vegetarianism,
as have Seventh-Day Adventists. In the nineteenth century, members
of the Bible Christian sect established the first vegetarian groups
in England and the United States.
Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, Tertullian, Origen,
Clement of Alexandria, John Wesley (Methodism’s founder),
Ellen G. White (a Seventh-Day Adventists founder), Salvation Army
cofounders William and Catherine Booth, Leo Tolstoy, and Nobel Peace
Prize winner Rev. Dr. Albert Schweitzer were Christians who became
vegetarian, as is the musician Moby.
Don’t laws ensure the welfare of farmed
In the U.S. and many other countries, standard procedures
on farms are specifically exempted from all humane legislation,
regardless of the pain and suffering they cause. Practices such
as bodily mutilations, which would warrant felony animal cruelty
charges if done to a dog or cat, are perfectly legal when done to
a pig or chicken. At the slaughterhouse, “humane slaughter”
laws are weak and poorly enforced for pigs, cattle, and sheep; the
slaughter of birds is completely exempt. We support efforts to improve
conditions on farms, but for many reasons, including our desire
not to pay others to do things we would not do ourselves, we feel
compelled to be vegetarians.
What would happen to those whose livelihoods
depend on animal agriculture?
If people ate less animal foods, farmers would
adapt to changed consumer demand for vegetarian foods..
Since animals eat each other, what’s
wrong with humans eating animals?
Christians are not called to follow the law of the
jungle (where “might makes right”), but to follow Christ—to be
compassionate, merciful, and humble, and to respect God’s Creation.
Are we natural meat eaters?
While humans can digest flesh, and it is likely that our ancestors consumed some meat, our anatomy much more strongly resembles that of plant-eating creatures. For example: like plant eaters (but un-like meat eaters), our colons are long and complex (not simple and short); our saliva contains digestive enzymes (un-like carnivores); and our teeth resemble those of plant eaters—for instance, our canines are short and blunt (not long, sharp, and curved).
The millions of healthy vegetarians (who tend to outlive meat
eaters) demonstrate that it is neither necessary nor desirable to
What if I don’t think vegetarianism
should be my priority?
Adopting a healthy vegetarian diet requires very
little extra time and commitment and can improve one’s sense
of well-being. Anyone can choose a cruelty-free diet while continuing
other important activities.
What can I do?
To the degree that you move toward a
plant-based diet, you significantly help humans, animals, and the
environment. As Christians, we are called to be faithful, which
includes living in accord with our core values as inspired by the
Holy Spirit. Being faithful also includes showing fellow Christians,
in loving and compassionate ways, that non-animal foods promote good
steward-ship of God’s Creation and, fortunately, are tasty,
convenient, and nutritious.
Find out more at
Like all diets, vegetarian diets require appropriate
planning for optimal nutrition. The following nutrients are those
that people most often have questions about or that need some specific
attention in pure vegetarian diets (i.e., diets that exclude all
The omega-3 fatty acids have anti-blood-clotting, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol-lowering properties. Vegetarians should include a daily source of 500 mg linolenic acid (ALA), which can be met with 1/5 oz English (brown) walnuts, ¼ tsp flaxseed oil, 1 tsp ground flaxseeds, or 1 tsp canola oil. Nutritionists also recommend 200-300 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), obtained from seaweed or supplements. Limit consumption of omega-6 oils (e.g., corn, soy, safflower, sunflower, sesame, or “vegetable oil”), and for cooking use olive, peanut, or canola oil. Canola and flaxseed oils can be warmed, but should not be brought to high heat.
Vegetarians should include a daily source of linolenic acid (the only essential omega-3 fatty acid). All omega-3s have anti-blood-clotting, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol-lowering properties. Vegetarians are recommended to get about 2.2 g for a 2,000 calorie/day diet. Linolenic acid is in walnuts (1.9 g/oz.), tofu and soybeans (1 g/cup), canola oil (1.3 g/Tbsp.), ground flaxseeds (1.6 g/Tbsp.), and flaxseed oil (2.5 g/tsp.). Vegetarians can easily obtain omega-3 fats by eating 1 tsp. of flax-seed oil per day (do not exceed 2 tsp./day). Flaxseed oil should be kept refrigerated; it may be added to warm food, but cooking will damage the linolenic acid
|Some High-Protein Plant Foods
|Textured soy protein
Adequate Intakes (set by the National Academy of Sciences) are 1,200
mg (over age 50), 1,000 mg (ages 19–50), 1,300 mg (ages 9–18),
800 mg (ages 4–8), and 500 mg (ages 1–3).
|Some High-Calcium Plant
|Orange juice, fortified
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for men and postmenopausal women
is 14.4 mg, and 32.4 mg for premenopausal women. Vegetarians are
no more likely to suffer from iron deficiency anemia than nonvegetarians.
Iron from plants is generally not absorbed as well as iron from
meat, but vitamin C enhances iron absorption (if eaten at the same
meal), and pure vegetarians tend to have high intakes of iron and
|Some High-Iron Plant Foods
RDA is 11 mg for adult men, and 8 mg for adult women. In some pure
vegetarian diets, zinc may be lower than recommended; however, pure
vegetarians do not show deficiency symptoms any more than do nonvegetarians.
Sources of zinc include beans, corn, peas, cashews, peanuts, peanut
butter, pumpkin seeds, and sunflower seeds; cereals are often fortified
Vitamin D is produced by sunshine on bare skin (without sunscreen).
Light-skinned people need 10–15 minutes of sunshine on their
hands and face, 2–3 times/week. Dark-skinned people need up
to 6 times this amount. People in cold or cloudy climates should
meet needs through fortified foods or supplements. The bone density
of pure vegetarians living in northern climates has been shown to
increase from a supplement of 5 mcg/day.
Vitamin B12 prevents permanent nerve damage, keeps the digestive
system healthy, and reduces the risk of heart disease by lowering
homocysteine levels. Deficiency symptoms sometimes include fatigue,
and tingling in the hands or feet. No unfortified plant foods (including
seaweeds and tempeh) are reliable sources of vitamin B12. Pure vegetarians
should get 3 mcg/day through fortified foods, or at least 10 mcg/day
through a supplement.
Higher fat foods like nuts and seeds (and their butters), avocados,
and small amounts of vegetable oils (especially canola and olive)
should be part of a healthy diet. These foods are particularly important
for meeting children’s calorie needs.
Vegetarians should include a daily source of linolenic
acid (the only essential omega-3 fatty acid). All omega-3 fatty
acids have anti-blood-clotting, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol-lowering
properties. Vegetarians are recommended to get about 2.2 g for a
2,000 calorie/day diet. Linolenic acid is in walnuts (1.9 g/oz.),
tofu and soybeans (.8–1.0 g/cup), canola oil (1.6 g/Tbsp.),
ground flaxseeds (2.1 g/Tbsp.), and flaxseed oil (2.5 g/tsp.). Pure
vegetarians can most easily obtain omega-3 fats by eating 1 tsp.
of flaxseed oil per day (do not exceed 2 tsp./day). Flaxseed oil,
sold in many natural food and grocery stores, should be kept refrigerated;
it may be added to warm food, but cooking will damage the linolenic
Since the amount of iodine in plant foods varies considerably, pure
vegetarians should take a modest iodine supplement of about 75 to
150 mcg (or a multivitamin containing this amount) every few days.
Poor Nutrition: The Atkins Diet
Like other fad diets, people on the Atkins Diet and other low-carbohydrate
diets generally regain the weight. Meanwhile, they may be putting
their long-term health at risk. The American Dietetic Association,
the American Heart Association, and most of the medical establishment
have denounced the diet as likely to cause cardiovascular and kidney
disease, gout, and constipation. Very high protein intake encourages
urinary calcium loss and has been linked to increased fracture risks.
|Recommended Daily Intakes
for Pure Vegetarian Adults
Note: Please see “Staying a Healthy Vegan”
(SHV) for the needs of other age groups and for more information
on all of the topics in this section.
(1) Could be harmful in amounts exceeding upper
(2) mcg = microgram = µg.
(3) One 75–150 mcg iodine tablet every few days will generally
(4) Most easily obtained through 1 tsp. of flaxseed oil. See SHV
for additional sources.
What To Eat?
When changing your diet, it may take time to explore
new foods and develop a routine. There are many different products
from which to choose—keep experimenting to find your personal
You can generally shop for vegetarian foods at supermarkets,
natural food stores, and co-ops. Vegetarian selections are usually
offered at Chinese, Indian, Italian, Mexican, Middle Eastern, Thai,
and other ethnic restaurants, as well as many chains, such as Burger
King, Papa John’s, Pizza Hut, Subway, and Taco Bell—just
Some simple meal ideas:
- Soy yogurt
- Fruit smoothie
- Bagel or toast with jelly
- Oatmeal or other hot cereal
- Cereal or granola with nondairy milk
- Vegetarian hot dog
- Baked tempeh or tofu sandwich
- Mock lunchmeat sandwich
- Peanut butter and jelly
- Grain or soy burger
- Seitan casserole
- Bean burrito
- Tofu lasagna
- Pasta and tomato sauce
- Soup or chili (over pasta or rice)
- Tofu, tempeh, or seitan stir-fry
- Baked, mashed, or fried potatoes
- Pretzels, popcorn, or chips
- Nuts, seeds, or trail mix
- Pie, cookies, or cake
- Nondairy ice cream
- Fresh or dried fruit
- Energy bar
You can continue to prepare your favorite dishes
and avoid animal products by making simple substitutions:
Use milks, cheeses, creams, yogurts, and frozen desserts made from
soy, rice, or nuts. Nutritional yeast adds a cheesy flavor to foods.
Replace butter with olive oil or trans-fat-free margarine.
In baking recipes, use powdered egg substitutes, such as Ener-G
Egg Replacer (sold at health food stores), or replace each egg with
half a banana, or 1 heavy tsp. of soy flour or cornstarch plus 2
Use textured vegetable protein (TVP), seitan, or other mock meats,
such as Morningstar Farms Ground Meatless.
Corn and Wild Rice Salad
- 1 1/2 cups uncooked wild rice blend
- 2 cups fresh or frozen corn kernels
- 1 cup finely chopped celery
- 3/4 cup shredded carrot
- 3/4 cup dried cranberries or cherries
- 2/3 cup sunflower seeds or toasted unsalted pumpkin
- 1/2 cup finely chopped red onion
- 1/4 raspberry vinegar or raspberry vinaigrette
- 1 Tbsp. olive oil (less if using salad dressing)
- 1 Tbsp. soy sauce (may use low-sodium)
- 1 tsp. grated orange peel
- 1/2 tsp. Pepper
Cook rice according to package directions, omitting
salt and fat. Set aside and cool. Combine the cooked rice, corn,
and remaining ingredients in a bowl. Cover the salad and chill.
Makes 8 one cup servings.
Curried Garbanzo Beans
- 1 large onion, chopped
- 1/2 cup vegetable broth
- 2 (15 1/2–19 oz.) cans garbanzo beans
(chickpeas), drained and partially mashed
- 1 tsp. curry powder, or to taste
- 1 tsp. coriander, or to taste
- 1 tsp. cumin, or to taste
- 3 oz. mango chutney, or to taste
- 2 (15 1/2–19 oz.) cans diced tomatoes
Sauté onions in the vegetable broth. Add
beans, spices, chutney, and tomatoes, mixing well. Serve over brown
rice or pasta.
Hoisin and Black Bean Stir-Fry
- 1/4 cup hoisin sauce
- 1 Tbsp. soy sauce
- 1 Tbsp. rice wine vinegar
- 1 Tbsp. sesame oil
- 1/4 tsp. red-pepper flakes
- 1 Tbsp. peanut oil
- 2 Tbsp. chopped fresh ginger
- 2 cloves garlic, minced
- 2 cups thinly sliced carrots
- 1/2 cup vegetable stock
- 1 green pepper, cut into strips
- 1 yellow squash, thinly sliced
- 1 cup snow peas
- 1 1/2 cups canned black beans, rinsed and drained
- 1/2 cup sliced water chestnuts
- 3 cups cooked rice, hot
Combine hoisin sauce, soy sauce, vinegar, sesame
oil, and pepper flakes; set aside. In a wok or large nonstick frying
pan over medium-high heat, warm the peanut oil. Add the ginger and
garlic; stir-fry for 1 minute. Add the carrots; stir-fry for 3–4
minutes, or until just tender. Add the stock; cook for 2–3
minutes, or until the liquid has evaporated. Add the green peppers,
squash and snow peas; stir-fry 4–5 minutes, or until just
tender. Stir in the beans, water chestnuts, and hoisin sauce mixture;
stir-fry for 2 minutes, or until heated through. Serve over rice.
Makes 4 servings.
Hearty Lentil-Barley Soup
- 3/4 cup chopped onion
- 3/4 cup chopped celery
- 1 clove garlic, minced
- 1/4 cup margarine
- 6 cups water
- 1 (28 oz.) can tomatoes, cut up
- 3/4 cup dry lentils, rinsed and drained
- 3/4 cup pearl barley
- 6 vegetarian bouillon cubes
- 1/2 tsp. dried rosemary, crushed
- 1/2 tsp. dried oregano, crushed
- 1/4 tsp. pepper
- 1 cup thinly sliced carrots
- 1 cup shredded soy (Swiss) cheese
- 1 loaf bread
In a 4-quart Dutch oven, cook onion, celery, and
garlic in hot margarine until tender. Add water, undrained tomatoes,
lentils, barley, bouillon cubes, rosemary, oregano, and pepper.
Bring to boiling; reduce heat. Cover and simmer for 45 minutes.
Add carrots and simmer for 15 minutes more or just until carrots
are tender. Ladle into soup bowls, top with cheese, and serve with
thick slices of bread. Makes 5 servings.
- 1/2 cup boiling water
- 1/2 cup textured vegetable protein
- 1 onion, chopped
- 1 green bell pepper, diced
- 2 large garlic cloves, minced
- 1/2 cup water or vegetable stock
- 2 (15 oz.) cans pinto beans
- 1 (15 oz.) can tomato sauce
- 1 cup fresh or frozen corn kernels
- 1–2 tsp. chili powder
- 1 tsp. dried oregano
- 1/2 tsp. ground cumin
- 1/8 tsp. cayenne (more for spicier chili)
Pour the boiling water over the textured vegetable
protein and let stand until softened. Braise the onion, bell pepper,
and garlic in water (or vegetable stock) until the onion is soft,
then add the remaining ingredients, including the textured vegetable
protein. Simmer at least 30 minutes. Makes 8 servings.
Autumn Frosted Caramel Apple Cake
- 2 Tbsp. soy margarine
- 1 cup packed brown sugar
- 1/4 tsp. salt (adjust if needed)
- 1/4 cup soymilk
- 2 cups powdered sugar
- 1 tsp. vanilla extract
- 2 cups unpeeled, cored, and chopped organic Granny
Smith or other sour apples
- 1 cup sugar
- 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
- 1 tsp. baking soda
- 1/2 tsp. salt
- 1 ripe pear, puréed or 1/4 cup applesauce
- 2 Tbsp. canola oil
- 1 1/2 Tbsp. egg replacer (equivalent of 1 egg)
- 1/4–1/2 cup chopped nuts
- 1/4 cup flaked coconut
In a pan, melt margarine, then add brown sugar,
salt, and soymilk. Boil on low heat for 2 minutes, stirring constantly.
Remove from heat and let cool. Then add powdered sugar and vanilla,
beat well, and set aside.
Preheat oven to 325°F. Grease and flour a 9"
round cake pan; set aside. Mix apples and sugar and let stand, stirring
occasionally to make a syrup. Sift flour, soda, and salt and add
to apples. Add remaining ingredients and combine well. Transfer
batter to prepared pan and bake for 40–45 minutes. Cool and
frost with caramel frosting.
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as Christian Stewardship.
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The Essential Guide to a Healthy Vegetarian Diet.
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Save Your Life and the World.
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- Judaism and Vegetarianism.
- Matthew Scully.
- Dominion: The Power of Man,
the Suffering of Animals,
and the Call to Mercy.
- Stephen H. Webb.
- Good Eating and On God and Dogs.
- Richard Alan Young.
- Is God a Vegetarian?
Other Web Sites (many include
Vegetarian Starter Kits
CVA Board of Directors
- Stephen R.L. Clark, D.Phil.
- Fr. John Dear, S.J.
- Daniel Dombrowski, Ph.D.
- DeRonda E. Elliott, R.N., C.C., M.T.S.
- Elizabeth Farians, Ph.D.
- William Greenway, Ph.D.
- Rev. Frank L. Hoffman
- Mary Hoffman
- Stephen R. Kaufman, M.D., cochair
- Andrew Linzey, Ph.D., D.D.
- Rev. Linda McDaniel
- Mary A. Schwantes, M.S
- Stephen H. Webb, Ph.D., cochair
- Richard Alan Young, Ph.D.
Contact the CVA
P.O. Box 201791, Cleveland, Ohio 44120
Foresta, Pines Rd., Liphook, GU30 7PL
phone 01428 723747
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© Christian Vegetarian Association, 2000–2007
(reprint permission granted) Rev. 11/03