Christianity and Vegetarianism
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The Christian Vegetarian Association is
an international, nondenominational ministry of Christians who
find that a plant-based diet benefits human health, the environment,
the world’s poor and hungry, and animals.
We believe that the Holy Spirit inspires
us to live according to our deepest, faith-based values—our
“calling.” We find that Christians care, often deeply,
about world hunger, human well-being, the environment, and animals.
Since a plant-based diet helps address these concerns, we see
it as an opportunity to honor God.
How is vegetarianism good stewardship?
Jesus preached, “For I was
hungry and you gave me food.…[A]s you did it to one of the
least of these my brethren, you did it to me” (Matt. 25:35,
40 RSV). Yet, while tens of millions die annually from starvation-related
causes and close to a billion suffer from malnutrition, 37 percent
of the world’s harvested grain is fed to animals being raised
for slaughter; in the United States, the figure is 66 percent.
Converting grains to meat wastes
67-90% of grains’ proteins, up to 96% of their calories,
and all of their fiber. Since it generally takes far more grains
to feed a meat eater, worldwide meat consumption greatly increases
demand for grains. Because land, water, and other resources are
limited, growing demand for meat increases the cost of all food,
and the world’s poor become increasingly unable to afford
food of any kind.
The apostle Paul wrote that our bodies are temples of the Holy
Spirit (1 Cor. 6:19), and it follows that we should care for our
bodies as gifts from God. The largest organization of food and
nutritional professionals in the U.S., the American Dietetic Association,
has endorsed well-planned vegetarian diets. The ADA notes that
vegetarian diets are associated with a reduced risk for obesity,
heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, colon cancer,
lung cancer, and kidney disease.
In contrast to the predominantly
plant-based Mediterranean diet that Jesus ate, modern Western
diets (heavily laden with animal products) put people at risk.
For example, animal foods tend to be high in saturated fat and
cholesterol, which elevate blood lipids and increase the risk
of heart disease, by far the #1 killer in the West. Because farmed
animals are bred to grow quickly and given little exercise, their
flesh is particularly high in saturated fats. In contrast, polyunsaturated
fats in plant foods generally improve one’s lipid profile
and reduce heart disease risk.
Numerous studies show this. The Cornell-Oxford-China
Project found that rural Chinese, who eat much less animal fat
and protein and derive the bulk of their nutrition from plant
sources, have far less heart disease mortality and much lower
cholesterol levels than Americans or Chinese people in cities
who eat a more Western diet.
Regarding obesity and diabetes, fiber
in grains and fructose sugar in fruits help people feel full,
which discourages overeating. In study after study, vegetarians
weigh less and have an easier time maintaining a healthy weight
than their meat-eating peers.
Regarding bone health, animal proteins
are heavily laden with sulfur-containing amino acids, which acidify
the blood. The body neutralizes the acid by leaching calcium from
bones, weakening the bones. In contrast, vegetables and fruits
contain base precursors that neutralize acids and protect bones.
Harvard Medical School’s Nurse's Health Study of 77,761
women, who were followed for 12 years, found that milk consumption
did not reduce the risk of bone fractures.
The routine use of antibiotics to
prevent infections in crowded, stressed animals promotes dangerous
antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Furthermore, high-speed
slaughterhouse operations predispose meat to bacterial contamination.
In 1999, the CDC estimated that food poisoning sickens about 76
million Americans annually and kills about 5,000. A year later,
the CDC found that about 86 percent of reported food poisoning
outbreaks derived from animal food sources. Other human health
concerns that derive directly from factory farming include consumption
of pesticides, hormones, heavy metals, and dioxins that become
concentrated in animal fat, and “Mad Cow” disease.
In Genesis 2:15, God instructed Adam
to “till” and “keep” the Garden of Eden,
and by analogy we may see caring for God’s Creation as our
sacred task. The typical meat eater’s diet can easily consume
up to 14 times more water and 20 times more energy than that of
a vegetarian. Indeed, current use of land, water, and energy is
not sustainable; resource depletion threatens to cause hardships
for humankind this century. Already, 40 percent of the world’s
agricultural lands are seriously degraded.
Jesus said that God feeds the birds
of the air (Matt. 6:26) and does not forget sparrows (Luke 12:6).
The Hebrew writings forbid inhumane slaughter or cruelty towards
beasts of burden (Exod. 23:5; Deut. 22:6–7, 25:4). Yet,
in the United States, virtually all food derived from animals
is obtained through intensive factory farming methods. Nearly
ten billion land animals are slaughtered each year, over a million
every hour, and the number of aquatic animals killed for food
is far greater. These animals suffer greatly from stressful crowding,
barren environments that frustrate their instinctive drives, amputations
without anesthesia (including debeaking, dehorning, tail docking,
and castration), and other painful procedures (Bernard Rollin,
Ph.D., Farm Animal Welfare).
Slaughter typically involves terror
and, often, great pain (Gail Eisnitz, Slaughterhouse). Illustrating
the industry’s callousness, animals too sick to walk are
painfully dragged to slaughter rather than humanely euthanized.
Typical of the industry’s attitude, John Byrnes wrote, “Forget
the pig is an animal. Treat him just like a machine in a factory”
(Hog Farm Management).
Does the Bible support vegetarianism?
The Bible depicts vegetarianism as God’s ideal,
and the diet conforms to the central biblical principle of stewardship.
In Eden, all creatures lived peacefully, and God told both humans
and animals to consume only plant foods (Gen. 1:29–31). Several
prophecies, such as Isaiah 11:6–9, foresee a return to this
vegetarian world, where the wolf, lamb, lion, cow, bear, snake,
and little child all coexist peacefully. Christian vegetarians,
while acknowledging human sinfulness, believe we should strive toward
the harmonious world Isaiah envisioned—to try to live in accordance
with the prayer that Jesus taught us, “Thy kingdom come, Thy
will be done, On earth as it is in heaven” (Matt. 6:10).
Did God put animals here for our use?
Adam’s “dominion” over animals
(Gen. 1:26, 28), we believe, conveys sacred stewardship, since God
immediately afterward prescribed a vegetarian diet (1:29–30)
in a world God found “very good” (1:31). Created in
God’s image of love (1 John 4:4), we are called to be caretakers
of God’s Creation, not tyrants over God’s creatures.
Genesis 2:18–19 indicates that God made animals
as Adam’s helpers and companions: “Then the LORD God
said, ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will
make him a helper fit for him.’ So out of the ground the LORD
God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the air, and
brought them to the man to see what he would call them…”
(RSV) Adam named the animals, which we believe shows concern and
friendship. We don’t name the animals we eat.
God endowed pigs, cattle,
sheep, and all farmed animals with their
own desires and needs, which is apparent
when these animals are given an opportunity
to enjoy life. For example, pigs are as
curious, social, and intelligent as cats
and dogs. Pigs can even play some video
games better than monkeys. Similarly,
chickens enjoy one another’s company
and like to play, dust bathe, and forage
for food. Jesus compared his love for
us to a hen’s love for her chicks
Why did God give Noah permission to eat
meat (Gen. 9:2–4)?
Virtually all plants were destroyed by the Flood.
Alternatively, God allowed Noah limited freedom to express human
violence, since unrestrained violence responsible for the Flood
itself (Gen. 6:11-13). Importantly, this passage does not command
meat-eating nor indicate that the practice is God’s ideal.
Indeed, eating meat came with a curse – animals would no longer
be humanity’s friends: “The fear and the dread of you
shall rest on every animal…” (Gen. 9:2) While eating
meat is not prohibited, it represents a complete break from God’s
ideal of animals and humans living peacefully together, as depicted
in Eden and by the prophets.
Does God care for animals?
Proverbs 12:10 teaches, “A righteous man has
regard for the life of his beast,” and Psalm 145:9 reminds
us that “The Lord is good to all, and his compassion is over
all that he has made.”
The Bible describes God’s concern for animals
repeatedly (Matthew 10:29, 12:11–12, 18:12–14) and forbids
cruelty (Deuteronomy 22:10, 25:4). Importantly, after the Flood,
God made a covenant, stated five times, with animals as well as
humans. All creatures share in the Sabbath rest (Exodus 20:10; Deut.
The Bible describes animals praising God (Psalms
148:7–10, 150:6), shows animals present in eternity (Isaiah
65:25; Revelation 5:13), and affirms that God preserves animals
(Psalm 36:6; Ephesians 1:10; Colossians 1:20). Animals and humans
look to God for sustenance (Psalms 104:27–31, 147:9; Matthew
6:26; Luke 12:6) and deliverance (Jonah 3:7–9; Romans 8:18–23).
God’s covenant in Genesis 9, in all five instances, is with
all flesh, not just humans.
Does vegetarianism equate human and animal
Vegetarianism simply reflects respect for Creation—the
diet benefits humans, animals, and the environment.
What about animal sacrifices?
The Bible relates that God accepted animal sacrifices.
However, several later prophets objected to sacrifice, emphasizing
that God prefers righteousness. Animal sacrifices are not required
or even desired now, for at least two reasons. First, Paul encouraged
self-sacrifice, writing, “[P]resent your bodies as a living
sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship”
(Romans 12:1). Second, traditional interpretations of Jesus’
death affirm that, because of him, animal sacrifice is no longer
necessary. Christians, being new creations in Christ, may model
Christ by choosing a loving relationship with all Creation. Indeed,
Jesus twice quoted Hosea (6:6), saying, “I desire mercy and
not sacrifice” (Matthew 9:13, 12:7).
Didn’t Jesus eat meat?
Luke 24:43 describes Jesus eating fish after the
Resurrection. However, Jesus’ diet 2,000 years ago in a Mediterranean
fishing community does not mandate what Christians should eat today.
Similarly, what Jesus wore does not dictate how we should dress
today. We are blessed with a wide range of healthful, tasty, convenient
plant foods, much like in Eden. Meanwhile, we believe that the way
animals are treated today makes a mockery of God’s love for
Is eating meat sinful?
The Bible does not prohibit eating meat. While many
people have eaten meat for nourishment, it is unnecessary for most
Christians today, who live amid abundance and variety. In particular,
many Christians reject modern factory farming, which is not necessary,
merciful, or compassionate.
What does the Bible say about eating meat?
Diet is a major theme in the Bible, and we can’t
cover everything in a short booklet. At www.christianveg.com/hgc-replies.htm,
we address biblical passages frequently cited by those who defend
Have there been many vegetarian Christians?
Our numbers are increasing rapidly, just as vegetarianism
is growing in the general population. Also, many early Christians
were vegetarian, including the Desert Fathers. Since then, the Trappist,
Benedictine, and Carthusian orders have encouraged vegetarianism,
as have Seventh-Day Adventists. In the nineteenth century, members
of the Bible Christian sect established the first vegetarian groups
in England and the United States.
Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, Tertullian, Origen,
Clement of Alexandria, John Wesley (Methodism’s founder),
Ellen G. White (a Seventh-Day Adventists founder), Salvation Army
cofounders William and Catherine Booth, Leo Tolstoy, and Nobel Peace
Prize winner Rev. Dr. Albert Schweitzer were Christians who became
vegetarian, as is the musician Moby.
Don’t laws ensure the welfare of farmed
In the U.S. and many other countries, standard procedures
on farms are specifically exempted from all humane legislation,
regardless of the pain and suffering they cause. Practices such
as bodily mutilations, which would warrant felony animal cruelty
charges if done to a dog or cat, are perfectly legal when done to
a pig or chicken. At the slaughterhouse, “humane slaughter”
laws are weak and poorly enforced for pigs, cattle, and sheep; the
slaughter of birds is completely exempt. We support efforts to improve
conditions on farms, but for many reasons, including our desire
not to pay others to do things we would not do ourselves, we feel
compelled to be vegetarians.
What would happen to those whose livelihoods
depend on animal agriculture?
If people ate less animal foods, farmers would adapt
to changed consumer demand.
Since animals eat each other, what’s
wrong with humans eating animals?
Christians are not called to follow the law of the
jungle (where “might makes right”), but to follow Christ—to
be compassionate, merciful, and humble, and to respect God’s
Creation. In this fallen world, animals suffer, die, and kill each
other. We are called to assist God in the reconciliation of all
Creation, as Jesus prayed, “Thy will be done, on earth as
it is in heaven.” (Matthew 6:10)
Are humans naturally predators and therefore
While humans can digest flesh, and it is likely
that our ancestors consumed meat, our anatomy much more strongly
resembles that of plant-eating creatures. For example: like plant
eaters (but unlike meat eaters), our colons are long and complex
(not simple and short); our intestines are 10–11 times longer
than our bodies (not 3–6 times longer); our saliva contains
digestive enzymes (unlike carnivores); and our teeth resemble those
of plant eaters—for instance, our canines are short and blunt
(not long, sharp, and curved).
The millions of healthy vegetarians (who tend to
outlive meat eaters) demonstrate that it is neither necessary nor
desirable to eat meat.
What if I don’t think vegetarianism
should be my priority?
Adopting a healthy vegetarian diet requires very
little extra time and commitment and can improve one’s sense
of well-being. Anyone can choose a cruelty-free diet while continuing
other important activities.
What can I do?
If you choose a plant-based diet, you
significantly help humans, animals, and the environment. As Christians,
we are called to be faithful, which includes living in accord with
our core values as inspired by the Holy Spirit. Being faithful also
includes showing fellow Christians, in loving and compassionate
ways, that nonanimal foods are tasty, convenient, and nutritious,
and promote good stewardship of God’s Creation.
Like all diets, vegetarian diets require appropriate
planning for optimal nutrition. The following nutrients are those
that people most often have questions about or that need some specific
attention in pure vegetarian diets (i.e., diets that exclude all
Vegetarians should eat 0.4 g of protein per day for every
pound of healthy body weight. If vegetarians consume adequate calories
and a variety of foods each day, they should get enough protein.
One need not combine foods at each meal to get “complete protein.”
|Some High-Protein Plant Foods
|Textured soy protein
Adequate Intakes (set by the National Academy of Sciences) are 1,200
mg (over age 50), 1,000 mg (ages 19–50), 1,300 mg (ages 9–18),
800 mg (ages 4–8), and 500 mg (ages 1–3).
|Some High-Calcium Plant
|Orange juice, fortified
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for men and postmenopausal women
is 14.4 mg, and 32.4 mg for premenopausal women. Vegetarians are
no more likely to suffer from iron deficiency anemia than nonvegetarians.
Iron from plants is generally not absorbed as well as iron from
meat, but vitamin C enhances iron absorption (if eaten at the same
meal), and pure vegetarians tend to have high intakes of iron and
|Some High-Iron Plant Foods
RDA is 11 mg for adult men, and 8 mg for adult women. In some pure
vegetarian diets, zinc may be lower than recommended; however, pure
vegetarians do not show deficiency symptoms any more than do nonvegetarians.
Sources of zinc include beans, corn, peas, cashews, peanuts, peanut
butter, pumpkin seeds, and sunflower seeds; cereals are often fortified
Vitamin D is produced by sunshine on bare skin (without sunscreen).
Light-skinned people need 10–15 minutes of sunshine on their
hands and face, 2–3 times/week. Dark-skinned people need up
to 6 times this amount. People in cold or cloudy climates should
meet needs through fortified foods or supplements. The bone density
of pure vegetarians living in northern climates has been shown to
increase from a supplement of 5 mcg/day.
Vitamin B12 prevents permanent nerve damage, keeps the digestive
system healthy, and reduces the risk of heart disease by lowering
homocysteine levels. Deficiency symptoms sometimes include fatigue,
and tingling in the hands or feet. No unfortified plant foods (including
seaweeds and tempeh) are reliable sources of vitamin B12. Pure vegetarians
should get 3 mcg/day through fortified foods, or at least 10 mcg/day
through a supplement.
Higher fat foods like nuts and seeds (and their butters), avocados,
and small amounts of vegetable oils (especially canola and olive)
should be part of a healthy diet. These foods are particularly important
for meeting children’s calorie needs.
Vegetarians should include a daily source of linolenic
acid (the only essential omega-3 fatty acid). All omega-3 fatty
acids have anti-blood-clotting, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol-lowering
properties. Vegetarians are recommended to get about 2.2 g for a
2,000 calorie/day diet. Linolenic acid is in walnuts (1.9 g/oz.),
tofu and soybeans (.8–1.0 g/cup), canola oil (1.6 g/Tbsp.),
ground flaxseeds (2.1 g/Tbsp.), and flaxseed oil (2.5 g/tsp.). Pure
vegetarians can most easily obtain omega-3 fats by eating 1 tsp.
of flaxseed oil per day (do not exceed 2 tsp./day). Flaxseed oil,
sold in many natural food and grocery stores, should be kept refrigerated;
it may be added to warm food, but cooking will damage the linolenic
Since the amount of iodine in plant foods varies considerably, pure
vegetarians should take a modest iodine supplement of about 75 to
150 mcg (or a multivitamin containing this amount) every few days.
Poor Nutrition: The Atkins Diet
Like other fad diets, people on the Atkins Diet and other low-carbohydrate
diets generally regain the weight. Meanwhile, they may be putting
their long-term health at risk. The American Dietetic Association,
the American Heart Association, and most of the medical establishment
have denounced the diet as likely to cause cardiovascular and kidney
disease, gout, and constipation. Very high protein intake encourages
urinary calcium loss and has been linked to increased fracture risks.
|Recommended Daily Intakes
for Pure Vegetarian Adults
Note: Please see “Staying a Healthy Vegan”
(SHV) for the needs of other age groups and for more information
on all of the topics in this section.
(1) Could be harmful in amounts exceeding upper
(2) mcg = microgram = µg.
(3) One 75–150 mcg iodine tablet every few days will generally
(4) Most easily obtained through 1 tsp. of flaxseed oil. See SHV
for additional sources.
What To Eat?
When changing your diet, it may take time to explore
new foods and develop a routine. There are many different products
from which to choose—keep experimenting to find your personal
You can generally shop for vegetarian foods at supermarkets,
natural food stores, and co-ops. Vegetarian selections are usually
offered at Chinese, Indian, Italian, Mexican, Middle Eastern, Thai,
and other ethnic restaurants, as well as many chains, such as Burger
King, Papa John’s, Pizza Hut, Subway, and Taco Bell—just
Some simple meal ideas:
- Soy yogurt
- Fruit smoothie
- Bagel or toast with jelly
- Oatmeal or other hot cereal
- Cereal or granola with nondairy milk
- Vegetarian hot dog
- Baked tempeh or tofu sandwich
- Mock lunchmeat sandwich
- Peanut butter and jelly
- Grain or soy burger
- Seitan casserole
- Bean burrito
- Tofu lasagna
- Pasta and tomato sauce
- Soup or chili (over pasta or rice)
- Tofu, tempeh, or seitan stir-fry
- Baked, mashed, or fried potatoes
- Pretzels, popcorn, or chips
- Nuts, seeds, or trail mix
- Pie, cookies, or cake
- Nondairy ice cream
- Fresh or dried fruit
- Energy bar
You can continue to prepare your favorite dishes
and avoid animal products by making simple substitutions:
Use milks, cheeses, creams, yogurts, and frozen desserts made from
soy, rice, or nuts. Nutritional yeast adds a cheesy flavor to foods.
Replace butter with olive oil or trans-fat-free margarine.
In baking recipes, use powdered egg substitutes, such as Ener-G
Egg Replacer (sold at health food stores), or replace each egg with
half a banana, or 1 heavy tsp. of soy flour or cornstarch plus 2
Use textured vegetable protein (TVP), seitan, or other mock meats,
such as Morningstar Farms Ground Meatless.
Corn and Wild Rice Salad
- 1 1/2 cups uncooked wild rice blend
- 2 cups fresh or frozen corn kernels
- 1 cup finely chopped celery
- 3/4 cup shredded carrot
- 3/4 cup dried cranberries or cherries
- 2/3 cup sunflower seeds or toasted unsalted pumpkin
- 1/2 cup finely chopped red onion
- 1/4 raspberry vinegar or raspberry vinaigrette
- 1 Tbsp. olive oil (less if using salad dressing)
- 1 Tbsp. soy sauce (may use low-sodium)
- 1 tsp. grated orange peel
- 1/2 tsp. Pepper
Cook rice according to package directions, omitting
salt and fat. Set aside and cool. Combine the cooked rice, corn,
and remaining ingredients in a bowl. Cover the salad and chill.
Makes 8 one cup servings.
Curried Garbanzo Beans
- 1 large onion, chopped
- 1/2 cup vegetable broth
- 2 (15 1/2–19 oz.) cans garbanzo beans
(chickpeas), drained and partially mashed
- 1 tsp. curry powder, or to taste
- 1 tsp. coriander, or to taste
- 1 tsp. cumin, or to taste
- 3 oz. mango chutney, or to taste
- 2 (15 1/2–19 oz.) cans diced tomatoes
Sauté onions in the vegetable broth. Add
beans, spices, chutney, and tomatoes, mixing well. Serve over brown
rice or pasta.
Hoisin and Black Bean Stir-Fry
- 1/4 cup hoisin sauce
- 1 Tbsp. soy sauce
- 1 Tbsp. rice wine vinegar
- 1 Tbsp. sesame oil
- 1/4 tsp. red-pepper flakes
- 1 Tbsp. peanut oil
- 2 Tbsp. chopped fresh ginger
- 2 cloves garlic, minced
- 2 cups thinly sliced carrots
- 1/2 cup vegetable stock
- 1 green pepper, cut into strips
- 1 yellow squash, thinly sliced
- 1 cup snow peas
- 1 1/2 cups canned black beans, rinsed and drained
- 1/2 cup sliced water chestnuts
- 3 cups cooked rice, hot
Combine hoisin sauce, soy sauce, vinegar, sesame
oil, and pepper flakes; set aside. In a wok or large nonstick frying
pan over medium-high heat, warm the peanut oil. Add the ginger and
garlic; stir-fry for 1 minute. Add the carrots; stir-fry for 3–4
minutes, or until just tender. Add the stock; cook for 2–3
minutes, or until the liquid has evaporated. Add the green peppers,
squash and snow peas; stir-fry 4–5 minutes, or until just
tender. Stir in the beans, water chestnuts, and hoisin sauce mixture;
stir-fry for 2 minutes, or until heated through. Serve over rice.
Makes 4 servings.
Hearty Lentil-Barley Soup
- 3/4 cup chopped onion
- 3/4 cup chopped celery
- 1 clove garlic, minced
- 1/4 cup margarine
- 6 cups water
- 1 (28 oz.) can tomatoes, cut up
- 3/4 cup dry lentils, rinsed and drained
- 3/4 cup pearl barley
- 6 vegetarian bouillon cubes
- 1/2 tsp. dried rosemary, crushed
- 1/2 tsp. dried oregano, crushed
- 1/4 tsp. pepper
- 1 cup thinly sliced carrots
- 1 cup shredded soy (Swiss) cheese
- 1 loaf bread
In a 4-quart Dutch oven, cook onion, celery, and
garlic in hot margarine until tender. Add water, undrained tomatoes,
lentils, barley, bouillon cubes, rosemary, oregano, and pepper.
Bring to boiling; reduce heat. Cover and simmer for 45 minutes.
Add carrots and simmer for 15 minutes more or just until carrots
are tender. Ladle into soup bowls, top with cheese, and serve with
thick slices of bread. Makes 5 servings.
- 1/2 cup boiling water
- 1/2 cup textured vegetable protein
- 1 onion, chopped
- 1 green bell pepper, diced
- 2 large garlic cloves, minced
- 1/2 cup water or vegetable stock
- 2 (15 oz.) cans pinto beans
- 1 (15 oz.) can tomato sauce
- 1 cup fresh or frozen corn kernels
- 1–2 tsp. chili powder
- 1 tsp. dried oregano
- 1/2 tsp. ground cumin
- 1/8 tsp. cayenne (more for spicier chili)
Pour the boiling water over the textured vegetable
protein and let stand until softened. Braise the onion, bell pepper,
and garlic in water (or vegetable stock) until the onion is soft,
then add the remaining ingredients, including the textured vegetable
protein. Simmer at least 30 minutes. Makes 8 servings.
Autumn Frosted Caramel Apple Cake
- 2 Tbsp. soy margarine
- 1 cup packed brown sugar
- 1/4 tsp. salt (adjust if needed)
- 1/4 cup soymilk
- 2 cups powdered sugar
- 1 tsp. vanilla extract
- 2 cups unpeeled, cored, and chopped organic Granny
Smith or other sour apples
- 1 cup sugar
- 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
- 1 tsp. baking soda
- 1/2 tsp. salt
- 1 ripe pear, puréed or 1/4 cup applesauce
- 2 Tbsp. canola oil
- 1 1/2 Tbsp. egg replacer (equivalent of 1 egg)
- 1/4–1/2 cup chopped nuts
- 1/4 cup flaked coconut
In a pan, melt margarine, then add brown sugar,
salt, and soymilk. Boil on low heat for 2 minutes, stirring constantly.
Remove from heat and let cool. Then add powdered sugar and vanilla,
beat well, and set aside.
Preheat oven to 325°F. Grease and flour a 9"
round cake pan; set aside. Mix apples and sugar and let stand, stirring
occasionally to make a syrup. Sift flour, soda, and salt and add
to apples. Add remaining ingredients and combine well. Transfer
batter to prepared pan and bake for 40–45 minutes. Cool and
frost with caramel frosting.
- Dreena Burton.
- The Everyday Vegan.
- Gail Davis.
- So, Now What Do I Eat? The Complete Guide
to Vegetarian Convenience Foods.
- Bobbie Hinman and Millie Snyder.
- Lean and Luscious and Meatless.
- Sarah Kramer and Tanya Barnard.
- How It All Vegan!
- Patricia LeShane.
- Vegetarian Cooking for People
- Ingrid Newkirk.
- The Compassionate Cook.
- Jennifer Raymond.
- The Peaceful Palate and Fat-Free
- Joanne Stepaniak.
- The Uncheese Cookbook
and Vegan Vittles.
- Debra Wasserman.
- Simply Vegan: Quick Vegetarian Meals.
- Neal Barnard.
- Food for Life; Eat Right, Live Longer; and
Turn Off the Fat Genes.
- Stephen R. Kaufman and Nathan Braun.
- Good News for All Creation: Vegetarianism
as Christian Stewardship.
- Andrew Linzey.
- Animal Theology.
- George H. Malkmus.
- Why Christians Get Sick.
- Erik Marcus.
- Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating.
- Vesanto Melina and Brenda Davis.
- The New Becoming Vegetarian:
The Essential Guide to a Healthy Vegetarian Diet.
- Virginia Messina and Mark Messina.
- The Vegetarian Way: Total Health
for You and Your Family.
- Vasu Murti.
- They Shall Not Hurt or Destroy.
- John Robbins.
- The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help
Save Your Life and the World.
- Richard Schwartz.
- Judaism and Vegetarianism.
- Matthew Scully.
- Dominion: The Power of Man,
the Suffering of Animals,
and the Call to Mercy.
- Stephen H. Webb.
- Good Eating and On God and Dogs.
- Richard Alan Young.
- Is God a Vegetarian?
Other Web Sites (many include
Vegetarian Starter Kits
CVA Board of Directors
- Stephen R.L. Clark, D.Phil.
- Fr. John Dear, S.J.
- Daniel Dombrowski, Ph.D.
- DeRonda E. Elliott, R.N., C.C., M.T.S.
- Elizabeth Farians, Ph.D.
- William Greenway, Ph.D.
- Rev. Frank L. Hoffman
- Mary Hoffman
- Stephen R. Kaufman, M.D., cochair
- Andrew Linzey, Ph.D., D.D.
- Rev. George H. Malkmus
- Rev. Linda McDaniel
- Stephen H.Webb, Ph.D., cochair
- Richard Alan Young, Ph.D.
Contact the CVA
P.O. Box 201791, Cleveland, Ohio 44120
toll free 866-202-9170 tel/fax 216-283-6702
e-mail [email protected]
Foresta, Pines Rd., Liphook, GU30 7PL
phone 01428 723747
© Christian Vegetarian Association,
(reprint permission granted) Rev. 11/03