veggies.jpg (6769 bytes)fruitbowl.jpg (6391 bytes)A Brief History of Protein: Passion, Social Bigotry, Rats, and Enlightenment

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We began this archive as a means of assisting our visitors in answering many of their health and diet questions, and in encouraging them to take a pro-active part in their own health.  We believe the articles and information contained herein are true, but are not presenting them as advice.  We, personally, have found that a whole food vegan diet has helped our own health, and simply wish to share with others the things we have found.   Each of us must make our own decisions, for it's our own body.  If you have a health problem, see your own physician.

A Brief History of Protein: Passion, Social Bigotry, Rats, and Enlightenment
By: John McDougall M.D.


1) Carpenter K. A short history of nutritional science: part 2 (1885-1912). J Nutr. 2003 Apr;133(4):975-84.

2) Chittenden, R. H. (1904). Physiological economy in nutrition, with special reference to the minimal protein requirement of the healthy man. An experimental study. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company.

3) Millward DJ. The nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human amino acid and protein requirements. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):249-60.

4) Millward DJ. Metabolic demands for amino acids and the human dietary requirement: Millward and Rivers (1988) revisited. J Nutr. 1998 Dec;128(12 Suppl):2563S-2576S.

5) Osborne T. Amino-acids in nutrition and growth. J Bio Chem. 1914; 17:325-49.

6) Rose W. Comparative growth of diet containing ten and nineteen amino acids, with further observation upon the role of glutamic and aspartic acid. J Bio Chem. 1948; 176: 753-62.

7) Bicker M. The protein requirement of adult rats in terms of the protein contained in egg, milk, and soy flour. J Nutr 1947;34: 491.

8) Bell G. Textbook of Physiology and Biochemestry, 4th ed., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1959, p. 12.

9) Reeds PJ. Protein nutrition of the neonate. Proc Nutr Soc. 2000 Feb;59(1):87-97.

10) Rose W. The amino acid requirement of adult man. Nutr Abst Rev. 1957;27:63l-47.

11) McDougall J. (1983). The McDougall Plan. Clinton, NJ. New Win Publishing.

12) M. Irwin, Hegsted D. A conspectus of research on protein requirements of man. J Nutr. 1971;101:385-428.

13) Moyer G. Frances Moore Lappe’s new edition says it all. Nutrition Action, Oct. 1982. p. 10-11.

14) St. Jeor S, Howard B, Prewitt E. Dietary protein and weight reduction. A statement for health professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2001;104:1869-74.

15) Personal Communication with John McDougall, MD on July 10, 2003.

16) J Pennington. Bowes & Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used. 17th Ed. Lippincott. Philadelphia- New York. 1998.

17) Reeds PJ. Protein and amino acid requirements and the composition of complementary foods. J Nutr. 2003 Sep;133(9):2953S-61S.

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