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"Exposing the truth to wipe
out animal experimentation"
Government Grants Promoting Cruelty to Animals
Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA
THOMAS D. ALBRIGHT - Primate Testing - 2006
Grant Number: 5R01EY007605-17
Project Title: Motion and Form Processing in Extrastriate Visual Cortex
PI Information: PROFESSOR THOMAS D. ALBRIGHT
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):
Cortical processing of visual motion has emerged as a model system for
studying the relations between neural activity and perception. Knowledge
of cortical processing stages, relevant perceptual phenomena and
computational strategies for motion processing is now sufficiently well
established to permit facile exploration of their interrelations.
series of coordinated neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments
has been designed with this aim. This project will initially focus on
cortical visual area MT. Emphasis will be placed upon obtaining evidence
for direct links between neural and perceptual eye through
neurophysiological recording in conscious behaving animals.
detection in the presence of visual noise can be markedly enhanced by attentional tracking. The engagement of attention-based motion detection
is tied to behavioral goals, and is likely to play a significant role in
normal visual perception. Little is currently known of its neural basis.
Coordinated psychophysical and neurophysiological experiments have been
designed to identify neural structure events that underlie this
The long-term goal of this project is to
contribute to the understanding of biological substrates of visual
perception and visually-guided behavior. Information obtained will
ultimately aid in the treatment prevention of neurologic and ophthalmic
disorders of vision caused by trauma, disease and developmental defects.
The aims are pertinent to a variety of clinical applications including
the development of visual prostheses and treatment programs for
color vision, form /pattern perception, motion perception, neural
information processing, neurophysiology, visual cortex, visual
attention, brain electrical activity, cue, psychophysics, visual
feedback, visual pathway, visual stimulus, visual threshold
Macaca mulatta, behavioral /social science research tag, clinical
research, electrophysiology, histology, human subject,
neuropsychological test, vision test
SALK INSTITUTE FOR BIOLOGICAL STUDIES,
LA JOLLA, CA 920371099
Fiscal Year: 2006
Project Start: 01-APR-1988
Project End: 31-JUL-2007
ICD: NATIONAL EYE INSTITUTE
J Neurophysiol 95: 255-270, 2006. First published September 28, 2005;
Adaptation in Macaque MT Reduces
Perceived Speed and Improves Speed Discrimination
Richard J. A. van Wezel2 and Thomas D. Albright1
1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Systems
Neurobiology Laboratories, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La
Jolla, California; and 2Helmholtz Institute,
Functional Neurobiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Submitted 15 July 2005; accepted in final
form 20 September 2005
The surgical procedures have been described in detail elsewhere (Dobkins
and Albright 1994 ). In short, a head post and a recording cylinder were
affixed to the skull using stainless steel rails, screws, and dental
acrylic (monkey M) or CILUX screws and dental acrylic (monkey S).
Recording chambers were placed vertically above the anatomical location
of area MT as determined from structural MR scans (typically 4 mm
posterior to the interaural plane and 17 mm lateral to the midsagittal
plane) to allow for a dorso-ventral electrode trajectory. After surgical
recovery and attainment of criterion performance on the visual fixation
task, a craniotomy was performed to allow for electrode passage into
area MT. All surgical procedures were conducted under sterile conditions
using isoflurane anesthesia.
All visual stimuli were generated with in-house OpenGL software using a
high-resolution graphics display controller (Quadro Pro Graphics card,
1,024 x 768 pixels, 8 bits/pixel) operating in a Pentium class computer.
In the experiments with monkey subjects, stimuli were displayed on a 21"
monitor (Sony GDM-2000TC; 75 Hz, noninterlaced).
Monkeys were seated in a standard primate
chair (Crist Instruments, Germantown, MD) with the head post rigidly
supported by the chair frame. Eye position was sampled at 60 Hz using an
infrared video-based system (IScan, Burlington, MA), and the eye
position data were monitored and recorded with the CORTEX program
(Laboratory of Neuropsychology, NIMH;
which was also used to implement the behavioral paradigm and to control
Please email Thomas D. Albright at
to protest the inhumane use of animals in this
experiment. We would also love to know about your efforts with this
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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have
been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore research
facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of this
situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not mean
that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable animals. A
blank form does mean that the facility in question has not used covered
animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, pigs,
sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to comprise over 90%
of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the majority of animals
used at research facilities are not even counted.