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Stop Animal Exploitation NOW!
S. A. E. N.
"Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation"

Government Grants Promoting Cruelty to Animals

Stanford University, Stanford, CA

JENNIFER L. RAYMOND - Primate Testing - 2006

Grant Number: 5R01DC004154-07
Project Title: Vestibular and Visual Control of Eye Movement
PI Information: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR JENNIFER L. RAYMOND, jennifer.raymond@stanford.edu 

Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) reduces motion of visual images on the retina by evoking eye movements in the opposite direction to head movements. A form of motor learning, known as VOR adaptation, calibrates the VOR by gradually correcting the reflex when image motion is persistently associated with head turns.

VOR adaptation is essential for ensuring adequate visual acuity during head turns and for restoring proper motor and perceptual orientation in space in response to changes in the organism or its environment, such as occur with growth and development, aging, injury to the peripheral or central nervous system or the donning of a new pair of spectacles.

The proposed experiments examine the neural mechanisms of VOR adaptation through a systematic analysis of the correlation between 1) the patterns of neural activity present in the circuit for the VOR during the induction of learning, 2) the altered activity in the circuit during the expression of learning, and 3) the behavioral changes that are induced.

The VOR is one of many motor systems that are thought to rely on cerebellum-dependent learning to maintain normal sensorimotor function and for recovery of function following injury. The anatomy and physiology of the cerebellum is very regular across the extent of this structure, therefore, the principles uncovered in studies of VOR adaptation may be useful for the development of rational therapeutic approaches for many forms of sensorimotor dysfunction.

Thesaurus Terms:
eye movement, neural information processing, neuroregulation, vestibuloocular reflex biological signal transduction, cerebellar Purkinje cell, cerebellar cortex, cerebellum, head movement, neural plasticity, retina, sensorimotor system, smooth pursuit eye movement, visual stimulus
Macaca mulatta, electrode, single cell analysis, statistics /biometry

Institution: STANFORD UNIVERSITY, STANFORD, CA 94305
Fiscal Year: 2006
Department: NEUROBIOLOGY
Project Start: 30-SEP-1999
Project End: 31-MAY-2008
ICD: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON DEAFNESS AND OTHER COMMUNICATION DISORDERS
IRG: SMI

LEARNING & MEMORY 11:559-565
2004 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; ISSN 1072-0502/04 $5.00

Reversal of Motor Learning in the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in the Absence of Visual Input

Marlene R. Cohen1, Geoffrey W. Meissner2, Robert J. Schafer1 and Jennifer L. Raymond1,3

1 Department of Neurobiology and 2 Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA

The subjects in this experiment were one female and three male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; 6-15 kg). Monkey L seemed to have impaired vision in one eye. The eye movements reported for that monkey were recorded in the eye with apparently normal vision.

Using sterile procedures described previously (Lisberger et al. 1994 ; Raymond and Lisberger 1996 ), animals were implanted with an eye coil for measuring vertical and horizontal eye movements and a head holder for restraining the head.

During experiments, animals were seated in a primate chair to which their head holder was secured. Head movement stimuli were delivered using a servo-controlled turntable (Carco) that rotated the animal, the primate chair, and a set of magnetic field coils (CNC Engineering) together about a vertical axis.

All surgical and behavioral procedures conformed to guidelines established by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (National Institutes of Health) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996) as approved by Stanford University.

VOR Gain Training
Animals were fitted with either 2.2x magnifying or 0.25x miniaturizing goggles, which they wore in their home cages for up to 4 wk. The first experiments were conducted after the monkey had been wearing the goggles for at least 24 h.

Following each day's experiment (which lasted <2 h), animals were returned to the home cage with the goggles on until the next experiment. Experiments were most often separated by 24 h and were never separated by <18 h.

After the animals had worn goggles for a period of several weeks, the goggles were removed and the animals were allowed at least 1 wk to recover in their home cages before more experiments were conducted. After removal of the goggles, the VOR gain returned to normal in 3 d.

Testing Procedures
During an experiment, the animal was seated in a primate chair and its head was restrained using the implanted head holder. The chair was secured to the turntable.

Once the animal's head was fixed, the goggles were removed and the eye coil was calibrated by having the monkey fixate a small visual target at a number of locations. Within 10 min of the goggles being removed, the lights were turned off.

At no time during the setup were the animals allowed to experience combined visual and vestibular stimulation when they were not wearing goggles. All experiments were conducted in a room specially designed to keep all light out, and this was checked periodically by the experimenters by adapting to the darkness in the room for 15 min and searching for stray light.

To further control for possible light leaks into the room, some experiments on Monkey B were conducted while the goggles remained on throughout the hour of head movements in the dark. 

Please email: JENNIFER L. RAYMOND, jennifer.raymond@stanford.edu  to protest the inhumane use of animals in this experiment. We would also love to know about your efforts with this cause: saen@saenonline.org

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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore research facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of this situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not mean that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable animals. A blank form does mean that the facility in question has not used covered animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to comprise over 90% of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the majority of animals used at research facilities are not even counted.

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