Emory University, Atlanta, GA

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Stop Animal Exploitation NOW!
S. A. E. N.
"Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation"

Government Grants Promoting Cruelty to Animals

Emory University, Atlanta, GA

MICHAEL J. MUSTARI - Primate Testing - 2006

Grant Number: 5R01EY006069-21
Project Title: Visual Processing and Smooth Eye Movements
PI Information: ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR MICHAEL J. MUSTARI, mjmustar@rmy.emory.edu 

Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):
Our studies are directed at defining the role of cortical-NOT and cortical-DLPN pathways in the control of smooth pursuit, OKN and gaze holding in visually-deprived monkeys compared to normally-reared monkeys. The visual and oculomotor systems are not mature at birth in either monkeys or humans. These systems develop in a synergistic fashion during the first few months of life. The visual system depends on the oculomotor system to hold the image of an object of interest relatively stable on the retina, to allow clear, high acuity vision. The oculomotor system relies on visual signals to provide error information for calibration of oculomotor output. If binocular visual experience is disrupted early in life, disorders in vision, gaze holding, eye alignment and eye movements follow. These disorders are permanent and difficult to treat. Our hypothesis is that visual afferent structures including the pretectal nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) and dorsolateral pontine nucleus (DLPN) will be defective in cases with pathological gaze holding and smooth pursuit eye movements. The NOT and DLPN depend on inputs from the middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) visual cortical areas for normal function. Our studies are designed to manipulate early coordinated binocular visual experience to provide an appropriate animal model to study alterations in oculomotor circuits associated with congenital cataracts and strabismus. Our preliminary data indicates that neurons in MT/MST and NOT are differentially sensitive to various forms of early visual deprivation. The neural substrate for latent nystagmus and defective smooth pursuit will be investigated using single unit recording in awake, behaving macaques. Eye movements will be measured precisely with an electromagnetic method. Completion of our studies will improve the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of vision, gaze holding and eye movements in children.

Thesaurus Terms:
eye movement disorder, neural information processing, optic tract, smooth pursuit eye movement, visual fixation, visual pathway binocular vision, congenital eye disorder, neuron, neurophysiology, saccade, vestibuloocular reflex, visual stimulus Macaca mulatta, behavioral /social science research tag, brain mapping, electrode, experimental brain lesion, single cell analysis, vision test

Institution: EMORY UNIVERSITY
1599 CLIFTON ROAD, 4TH FLOOR
ATLANTA, GA 30322
Fiscal Year: 2006
Department: NEUROLOGY
Project Start: 30-SEP-1990
Project End: 29-FEB-2008
ICD: NATIONAL EYE INSTITUTE
IRG: VISB

J Neurophysiol 96: 2819-2825, 2006. First published June 21, 2006

Extraretinal Signals in MSTd Neurons Related to Volitional Smooth Pursuit
 
Seiji Ono1 and Michael J. Mustari1,2
 
1Division of Sensory-Motor Systems, Yerkes National Primate Research Center and 2Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
 
Submitted 19 May 2006; accepted in final form 14 June 2006

Surgical procedures
Behavioral and single unit data were collected from three normal juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), weighing 57 kg. A detailed description of most of our procedures can be found in earlier publications (Mustari et al. 1988 , 1997 , 2001 ; Ono et al. 2004 ). Surgical procedures, carried out under aseptic conditions using isoflurane anesthesia (1.252.0%), were used to stereotaxically implant a titanium head stabilization post and titanium or Cilux recording chambers (Crist Instruments). In the same surgery, a scleral search coil for measuring eye movements (Fuchs and Robinson 1966 ) was implanted underneath the conjunctiva of one eye using the technique of Judge et al. (1980) . All surgical procedures were performed in strict compliance with National Institutes of Health guidelines, and the protocols were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Emory University.

Behavioral paradigms
During all experiments, monkeys were seated in a primate chair (Crist Instruments) with their head stabilized in the horizontal stereotaxic plane. Testing was conducted in a customized room that was made completely dark.

* Fuchs and Robinson 1966

Please email:  MICHAEL J. MUSTARI, mjmustar@rmy.emory.edu to protest the inhumane use of animals in this experiment. We would also love to know about your efforts with this cause: saen@saenonline.org

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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore research facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of this situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not mean that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable animals. A blank form does mean that the facility in question has not used covered animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to comprise over 90% of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the majority of animals used at research facilities are not even counted.

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