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Stop Animal Exploitation NOW!
S. A. E. N.
"Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation"

Government Grants Promoting Cruelty to Animals

Washington University, St. Louis, MO

W THOMAS THACH - Primate Testing - 2006

Grant Number: 5R01NS012777-28
Project Title: Neural Control Of Trained Movement
 W THOMAS THACH, thachw@pcg.wustl.edu 

Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):
MAJOR GOALS are to study the roles of the cerebellum and basal ganglia in adapting, learning and storing adjustments of eye-hand coordination. Gaze will be perturbed with laterally displacing prisms (project #1) and with shift of the visual target (project #2 ) to see how monkeys adjust their reaching to visual targets. Two types of adjustment are distinguished, leaming and adaptation. In leaning, a monkey stores two gaze-reach calibrations, and can call each up immediately if it knows each condition. In adaptation, there is only one stored gaze-reach calibration, which must be adjusted back and forth by practice. Project # 1 examines whether the cerebellum and basal ganglia are both necessary for storing learned gaze-reach calibrations. Monkeys will have two gaze-reach calibrations: 1) reaching to and touching a visual target without prisms, in which eyes and reach are aligned, and 2) learned reaching to and touching a visual target with prisms, in which eyes and reach are divergent. Neurons in cerebellar cortex, deep nuclei, and globus pallidus pars interna will be recorded from then inactivated to see if the learned gaze-reach adjustment is abolished. Project # 2 asks how the cerebellar cortex, inferior olive, and parvocellular red nucleus are involved in adapting and learning to touch a visual target that has shifted in mid-reach. At the start of each block of adaptation shift trials, the visual target will shift mid-reach in a novel direction, and continue each trial to shift in that direction for the rest of the block. The monkey must adapt in order to touch the target at its shifted novel location. Then the monkey will have a block of no-shift trials, and must then dis-adapt in order to hit the target where it initially appears. During learning shift trials, the target will shift in a direction that is fixed and therefore predictable throughout the block and all such blocks of trials. The monkey will be informed that this is the learned shift condition and thus can learn it, in addition to the no-shift condition. This project focuses on the problem of how subjects adapt and learn when knowledge of results is delayed after the movement. Recording Purkinje cell firing and recording from and inactivating neurons of the parvocellular red nucleus will help to understand their involvement.

Thesaurus Terms:
body movement, cerebellum, learning, neuromuscular function, neuroregulation
basal ganglia, cerebellar Purkinje cell, cerebellar cortex, eye movement, head movement, limb movement, neural transmission, visual stimulus
Macaca mulatta, electrocardiography, electromyography, electrophysiology, oximetry

SAINT LOUIS, MO 631304899
Fiscal Year: 2006
Project Start: 01-SEP-1977
Project End: 31-MAY-2008

J Neurophysiol 92: 1867-1879, 2004

Purkinje Cell Spike Firing in the Posterolateral Cerebellum: Correlation With Visual Stimulus, Oculomotor Response, and Error Feedback

Scott A. Norris, Bradley Greger, Emily N. Hathaway and W. Thomas Thach

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110

Submitted 22 January 2003; accepted in final form 28 April 2004

Two male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) each performed a visually guided reach task. All surgical and experimental procedures were in accordance with National Institutes of Health and U. S. Department of Agriculture guidelines and were approved by the Animal Studies Committee at Washington University School of Medicine under Protocols 98081 and 20010036. The monkeys sat in a custom-built primate chair that restrained the head and allowed free movement of both arms. Two capacitance switches were fixed on the chair so that the monkey's arms were positioned by its side when its hands were on the switches. A 15-in touch-sensitive video monitor was positioned vertically 20 cm from the monkey's eyes to present a visual target dot and register the monkey's touch response. A 10 x 10-mm white box continuously appeared in one of the upper corners of the screen to indicate the respective reach hand.

Behavioral task
Figure 1 shows the reach task. At the onset of a trial, the monkey held both its hands on capacitance switches for a random initial hold time (5001,000 ms). A red target dot, 6 mm in diameter, appeared on the video screen. The monkey was required to gaze to, reach, and touch the target. Once the monkey began its reach, it had 300 ms to touch the screen with the instructed hand. When the monkey touched the screen, a white dot 6 mm in diameter appeared on the screen at the location of touch, and the red target dot remained. The monkey then had 400 ms to return the reach hand back to the correct capacitance switch. A final random hold time (5001,500 ms) was required before the monkey received a liquid reward for a correct trial. The interval between reward and the beginning of the next trial's initial hold period was randomized (12 s).

Please email: W THOMAS THACH, thachw@pcg.wustl.edu to protest the inhumane use of animals in this experiment. We would also love to know about your efforts with this cause: saen@saenonline.org

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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore research facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of this situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not mean that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable animals. A blank form does mean that the facility in question has not used covered animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to comprise over 90% of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the majority of animals used at research facilities are not even counted.

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