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Facility Reports and Information

Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH

DOD Funding of Animal Cruelty 2005: Distribution of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in Sprague-Dawley rats following dermal glutathione (GSH) depletion 

Title: Distribution of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in Sprague-Dawley rats following dermal glutathione (GSH) depletion

Research Category:

FY: 2005 Funding (in dollars): 91,000

Responsible Organization: AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB/WRIGHT PATTERSON
Primary Contact: See Responsible Organization Information
City: Wright-Patterson AFB
State: OH
Zip: 45433-7902

Keywords: LABORATORY ANIMALS GSH + SKIN + DEPLETION + MODEL NAC + CELL CULTURE NAC + SKIN CELLS RAT + GSH + SKIN + DEPLETION

Objective: The objectives of this work are to: 1) demonstrate that dosing with NAC by oral gavage restores glutathione levels in rat skin treated with the GSH-depleting substance DEM, and 2) show that NAC distributes to the skin following GSH depletion, which indirectly shows that NAC given by the oral route can act as a source of cysteine in skin cells for regenerating skin GSH levels. Our hypothesis is that orally-administered NAC should restore GSH levels in rat skin previously treated with DEM, a GSH-depleting substance.

Approach: Depletion of dermal glutathione (GSH) following exposure to a GSH depletor: In the first study, we determined the topical dose of diethyl maleate (DEM) required to significantly deplete GSH from rat dorsal skin when assessed one and three hours after application. GSH replenishment via NAC oral dosing: This was accomplished by using radio-labelled cysteine portion of NAC to determine if NAC was the source of cysteine in GSH replenishment. Three experimental groups were used; DEM-only, NAC-only, and DEM + NAC. Besides the skin, we also looked at urine and feces to determine if NAC uptake/use was increased due to GSH replenishment. This was performed in the adult rat model.

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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore research facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of this situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not mean that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable animals. A blank form does mean that the facility in question has not used covered animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to comprise over 90% of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the majority of animals used at research facilities are not even counted.

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