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Government Grants Promoting Cruelty to Animals
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
CARL R. OLSON - Primate Testing - 2006
Grant Number: 5P50MH045156-170011
Project Title: COGNITIVE DEMAND AND THE ACTIVITY OF PREFRONTAL
PI Information: PROFESSOR CARL R. OLSON
This abstract is not available.
cognition, neural information processing, prefrontal lobe /cortex,
conditioning, disease /disorder model, memory, neuroregulation,
performance, psychological reinforcement, schizophrenia, suppression
Institution: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH AT PITTSBURGH
350 THACKERAY HALL
PITTSBURGH, PA 15260
Fiscal Year: 2006
ICD: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH
Neurophysiol 94: 2457-2471, 2005
Neuronal Activity in Primate Orbitofrontal Cortex
Reflects the Value of Time
Matthew R. Roesch1,2 and Carl R. Olson1,2
1Center for the Neural Basis of
Cognition, Mellon Institute; and 2Department
of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Submitted 12 April 2005; accepted in final form 11 June 2005
Two adult male rhesus monkeys were used (Macaca mulatta; laboratory
designations P and F). Experimental procedures were approved by the
Carnegie Mellon University Animal Care and Use Committee and were in
compliance with the guidelines set forth in the United States Public
Health Service Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
At the outset of the training period, each monkey underwent sterile
surgery under general anesthesia maintained with isofluorane inhalation.
The top of the skull was exposed, bone screws were inserted around the
perimeter of the exposed area, a continuous cap of rapidly hardening
acrylic was laid down so as to cover the skull and embed the heads of
the screws, a head-restraint bar was embedded in the cap, and scleral
search coils were implanted on the eyes, with the leads directed
subcutaneously to plugs on the acrylic cap (Robinson 1963 ). After
initial training, recording chambers were implanted into the acrylic.
For this purpose, a 2-cm-diameter disk of acrylic and skull overlying
the left hemisphere was removed. A cylindrical recording chamber was
cemented into the hole with its base flush to the exposed dural
membrane. The chamber was centered at approximately anterior 23 mm and
lateral 23 mm with respect to the Horsley–Clarke reference frame.
The monkeys performed a memory-guided saccade task in which a cue
presented early in each trial predicted a short (500-ms) or a long
(2,500-ms) delay period. Essential features of the task are summarized
in Fig. 1A. Each trial began with onset of a central fixation spot. At a
point in time 50 ms after attainment of fixation, the spot was
transformed to a cue the shape and color of which signified the length
of the upcoming delay period. After 400 ms two potential targets
appeared at diametrically opposed locations to the right and left of
fixation. A directional cue identical to the fixation cue except in size
was then presented for 250 ms in superimposition on one of the targets.
After a 500-ms (or 2,500-ms) delay period, the fixation spot was
extinguished, whereupon the monkey was required to make a saccade
directly to the previously cued target and to maintain fixation on it
for 300–450 ms after saccade completion, at which time a juice reward
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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have
been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore
research facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of
this situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not
mean that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable
animals. A blank form does mean that the facility in question has not
used covered animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs,
hamsters, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to
comprise over 90% of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the
majority of animals used at research facilities are not even counted.