Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN

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Stop Animal Exploitation NOW!
S. A. E. N.
"Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation"

Government Grants Promoting Cruelty to Animals

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN

JON H. KAAS- Primate Testing - 2006

Grant Number: 5R01EY002686-30
Project Title: Functional Organization of the Visual System
PI Information: PROFESSOR JON H. KAAS, jon.h.kaas@vanderbilt.edu 

Abstract: The research will address a series of hypotheses about how visual cortex is organized in primates by relating connection patterns revealed by the use of 4 or more distinguishable tracers in single cases. Results will be related to cortical areas defined by architecture or relative location, and in some instances by electrophysiological mapping and optical imaging techniques. Neurons labeled by each injection will be counted in each area, and the proportion of the area with labeled cells measured so that connection magnitudes and topographic foci can both be quantified. (1.) In one set of experiments, injections of different tracers into 4 or more locations in the superior colliculus will be used to reveal for the first time the total projection pattern from cortical areas and the retinotopy of the projections of individual areas to the superior colliculus. The results will address hypotheses that some areas contribute more to superior colliculus function than others, and that differences in functional roles are reflected in differences in the topographic precision of those projections. (2.) Under the premise that different parts of the same area will have similar connections, injections of tracers will be used to evaluate the hypothesis that V3v and V3d are parts of the same area,V3, rather than separate areas with V3v being VP or V3d being part of DM. (3.) Connection patterns will be used to evaluate our proposal that the "V4" region in primates actually consists of two separate areas and part of another. We predict that each of the three areas will have a different pattern of connections with other cortical areas. (4.) Visual area MT is interconnected with intraparietal cortex, but it' s not known if these connections are topographic, and if one or two IP areas, LIP and VIP, exist. Injections in 4 locations in MT will address this issue by determining if one or two topographic patterns of connections with IP cortex exist. The connection patterns with MT are also expected to be topographic with proposed areas FSTd and DM, establishing them as valid areas. We expect that the results of these experiments will greatly advance our understanding of the organization of visual cortex in primates, and produce more accurate models of the human visual system that will permit more appropriate interpretations of functional data.

Thesaurus Terms:
Primate, biological model, brain mapping, neural information processing, neural plasticity, superior colliculus, visual cortex, visual pathway intercellular connection, neurophysiology, sensory cortex, species difference Aotus, Macaca, Prosimii, electrophysiology, experimental brain lesion, histochemistry /cytochemistry, histology, microelectrode, microinjection, neuronal transport

Institution: VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY
Medical Center, NASHVILLE, TN 372036869
Fiscal Year: 2006
Department: PSYCHOLOGY
Project Start: 01-JUN-1978
Project End: 30-APR-2009
ICD: NATIONAL EYE INSTITUTE
IRG: CVP

Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2000;41:4022-4031

Binocular Cross-Orientation Suppression in the Primary Visual Cortex (V1) of Infant Rhesus Monkeys

Minoru Endo1,2, Jon H. Kaas3, Neeragi Jain3, Earl L. Smith, III1 and Yuzo Chino1

1From the College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas; and 2Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Subjects and Surgical Preparation
The preparation and recording methods have been described in detail elsewhere.8 12 The ages of the infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at the time of recording experiments were 1 (n = 3), 2 (n = 2), 4 (n = 2), or 8 weeks (n = 2). The monkeys were anesthetized initially with an intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (15–20 mg/kg) and acepromazine maleate (0.15–0.2 mg/kg), and a superficial vein was cannulated. All subsequent surgical procedures, including a tracheotomy and a small craniotomy and durotomy over the operculum of V1, were carried out under sodium thiopental anesthesia (2.5% solution). Each animal was given an initial injection of between 10 and 15 mg/kg. During the surgical procedures small amounts of the anesthetic were given every 5 to 10 minutes to maintain a deep level of anesthesia, that is, the corneal blink reflex and the withdrawal reflex produced by a paw-pad pinch were completely suppressed. After all surgical procedures, the animals were paralyzed by an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of pancuronium bromide (a loading dose of 0.1–0.2 mg/kg, followed by a continuous infusion at the rate of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg/h). The animals were artificially respired with a mixture of 59% N2O, 39% O2, and 2% CO2 to maintain an end-tidal CO2 between 4.0% and 4.5%. The core body temperature of the monkeys was kept at 37.6°C. Throughout the recording session, the anesthesia was monitored and maintained by the continuous i.v. infusion of sodium pentobarbital (2–4 mg/kg/h). Cycloplegia was produced by 1% atropine sulfate, and the animal’s corneas were protected with rigid, gas permeable, extended-wear contact lenses. Retinoscopy was used to determine the contact lens parameters required to focus the eyes on the stimulus screens.

Please email:  JON H. KAAS, jon.h.kaas@vanderbilt.edu to protest the inhumane use of animals in this experiment. We would also love to know about your efforts with this cause: saen@saenonline.org

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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore research facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of this situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not mean that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable animals. A blank form does mean that the facility in question has not used covered animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to comprise over 90% of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the majority of animals used at research facilities are not even counted.

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