Home Page
About SAEN
Articles and Reports
Contact Us
Events and Campaigns
Fact Sheets
Financial Information
How You Can Help
Make a Donation, Please!
Media Coverage
Picture Archive
Press Releases
Resources and Links
Grass Roots Org. List

Stop Animal Exploitation NOW!
S. A. E. N.
"Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation"

Articles and Reports

Alternatives to Animal Research and Testing

Alternatives to Ascites Production of Monoclonal Antibodies
by John McArdle, Ph.D.
Alternatives Research and Development Foundation
Eden Prairie, Minnesota


More than 20 years ago, a new in vitro alternative was developed for production of monoclonal antibodies. Because of its simplicity and importance, this technique was widely adopted and used in nearly every field of biomedical research and biotechnology. For similar reasons, a new form of laboratory animal cruelty and suffering was also created the use of ascites methods to produce antibodies.

For the last decade, researchers in Europe and the United States have systematically developed, validated, and adopted multiple in vitro replacements for the use of rodent ascites. This process of technique development has progressed to the point that it is now possible to prohibit use of ascites in all but the most unusual and rare circumstances.

Replacement of animals (either intact, cells, or serum) in production of MAbs will finally allow for implementation of the humane possibilities of Kohler and Milstein's original discovery, replace a method widely acknowledged to be cruel with more humane options, and promote a greater understanding and acceptance of the alternatives approach to planning and conducting biomedical research (16).

For additional information on alternatives in biomedical research, testing and education, or to subscribe to our complimentary newsletter, please contact: John McArdle, Ph.D., Director, Alternatives Research & Development Foundation, 14280 Golf View Drive, Eden Prairie, MN 55346-3000, USA, phone: 612-949-2409, fax: 612-949-2619.

Go on to References
Return to
Alternatives to Ascites Production of Monoclonal Antibodies
Return to
Alternatives to Animal Research and Testing
Return to Articles and Reports

Fair Use Notice: This document may contain copyrighted material whose use has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owners. We believe that this not-for-profit, educational use on the Web constitutes a fair use of the copyrighted material (as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law). If you wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner

We welcome your comments and questions

This site is hosted and maintained by:
The Mary T. and Frank L. Hoffman Family Foundation
Thank you for visiting all-creatures.org.
Since date.gif (991 bytes)