Home Page
About SAEN
Articles and Reports
Contact Us
Events and Campaigns
Fact Sheets
Financial Information
How You Can Help
Make a Donation, Please!
Media Coverage
Picture Archive
Press Releases
Resources and Links
Grass Roots Org. List

Stop Animal Exploitation NOW!
S. A. E. N.
"Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation"

Articles and Reports

Alternatives to Animal Research and Testing

Alternatives to Ascites Production of Monoclonal Antibodies
by John McArdle, Ph.D.
Alternatives Research and Development Foundation
Eden Prairie, Minnesota


1. Anon (1989). Code of Practice for the Production of Monoclonal Antibodies. 6 pp. Rijswijk, The Netherlands: Veterinary Health Inspectorate.

2. Bodeus, M., Bartonboy, G., and H. Bazin (1985). Rat monoclonal antibodies IV. Easy method for in vitro production. Journal of Immunological Methods 79:1-6.

3. Burton, D. and C. F. Barbas (1994). Human antibodies from combinatorial libraries. Advances in Immunology 57:191-280.

4. Falkenberg, F. W., Hengelage, T., Krane, M., Bartels, I., Albrecht, A., Holtmeier, N., and M. Wuthrich (1993). A simple and inexpensive high density dialysis tubing cell culture system for the in vitro production of monoclonal antibodies in high concentrations. Journal of Immunological Methods 165:193-206.

5. Falkenberg, F. W., Weichert, H., Krane, M., Bartels, I., Palme, M., Nagels, H. O., and H. Fiebig (1995). In vitro production of monoclonal antibodies in high concentration in a new and easy to handle modular minifermentor. Journal of Immunological Methods 179:13-29.

6. Hendriksen, C., Rozing, J., Kamp, M., and W. de Leeuw (1996). The production of monoclonal antibodies: Are animals still needed? ATLA 24:109-110.

7. Hopkinson, J. (1985). Hollow fiber cell culture systems for economical cell-product manufacturing. Bio/Technology 3:225-230.

8. Jackson, L. R., Trudel, L. J., Fox, J. G., and N. S. Lipman (1996). Evaluation of hollow fiber bioreactors as an alternative to murine ascites production for small scale monoclonal antibody production. Journal of Immunological Methods 189:217-231.

9. Jackson, L.R., Trudel, L.J., Fox, J.G., and N.S. Lipman (1996). Clinicopathologic features and production parameters of monoclonal antibody production in murine ascites. (In preparation.)

10. Jaspert, R. et al., (1995). Laboratory scale production of monoclonal antibodies in a tumbling chamber. Journal of Immunological Methods 178:77-87.

11. Kamp, M. and W. de Leeuw (1996). Short review of in vitro production methods for monoclonal antibodies. NCA Newsletter 3:10-11.

12. Kara, A.E., Bell, C. W. and T. E. Chin (1995). Recombinant antibody technology. ILAR Journal 37:132-141.

13. Kohler, G. and C. Milstein (1975). Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256:495-497.

14. Kuhlman, I., Kurth, W., and I. Ruhdel (1989). Monoclonal antibodies: in vivo and in vitro production on a laboratory scale, with consideration of the legal aspects of animal protection. ATLA 17:73-82.

15. Marx, U., Embleton, M. J., Fisher, R., Gruber, F. P., Hansson, U., Heuer, J., de Leeuw, W.A., Logtenberg, T., Merz, W., Portetelle, D., Romette, J-L., and D.W. Straughan (1997). Monoclonal antibody production: The report and recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 23. ATLA 25:121-137.

16. McArdle, J.E. (1992). Antibodies and alternatives: natural partners. AV Magazine 100:4-9.

17. McArdle, J., Reddington, J., Reddington, G., and J. Heidel (1996). Further development of a unique, simple, inexpensive, efficient in vitro method for small, medium and large scale production of monoclonal antibodies. ATLA 24 (special issue):318.

18. Moro, A.M., Rodrigues, M. T. A., Gouvea, M. N., Silvestri, M. L. Z., Kalil, J. E., and I. Raw (1994). Multiparametric analyses of hybridoma growth as glass cylinders in a packed-bed bioreactor system with internal aeration. Serum-supplemented and serum-free comparison for MAb production. Journal of Immunological Methods 176:67-77.

19. Pannell, R. and C. Milstein (1992). An oscillating bubble chamber for laboratory scale production of monoclonal antibodies as an alternative to ascitic tumours. Journal of Immunological Methods 146:43-48.

20. St. Groth, S.F. de (1983). Automated production of monoclonal antibodies in a cytostat. Journal of Immunological Methods 79:1-6.

21. Sinacore, M.S., B.C. Creswick and R. Buehler (1989). Entrapment and growth of murine hybridoma cells in calcium alginate gel microbeads. Bio/Technology 7:1275-1279.

22. Sjorgren-Jansson, E. and S. Jeansson (1990). Growing hybridomas in dialysis tubing, optimization of the technique. In Laboratory Methods Immunology, E. Zola (ed.), CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, pp. 1-41.

23. Stang, B.V., Wood, P. A., Reddington, J. J., Reddington, G. M., and J.R. Heidel (1997). Monoclonal antibody production in gas-permeable bags using serum-free media. (In preparation.)

24. Stoll, T., Perregaux, C., Stockar, U. V., and I. W. Marison (1995). Production of immunoglobulin A in different reactor configurations. Cytotechnology 17:53-63.

25. Winter, G. and C. Milstein (1991). Man-made antibodies. Nature 349:293-299.

26. Winter, G., Griffiths, A. D., Hawkins, R. F., and H.R. Hoogenboom (1994). Making antibodies by phage display technology. Annual Review of Immunology 12:433-455.

Return to Alternatives to Ascites Production of Monoclonal Antibodies
Return to
Alternatives to Animal Research and Testing
Return to Articles and Reports

Fair Use Notice: This document may contain copyrighted material whose use has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owners. We believe that this not-for-profit, educational use on the Web constitutes a fair use of the copyrighted material (as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law). If you wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner

We welcome your comments and questions

This site is hosted and maintained by:
The Mary T. and Frank L. Hoffman Family Foundation
Thank you for visiting all-creatures.org.
Since date.gif (991 bytes)