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Articles and Reports

Primate Health Care Report Information

Primate rq2849 3-12-03 finger laceration (bite wound) with swelling and discharge. By 4-7-03 injury is re-opened with “deep wound” which extends about 50% around the hand. Finger amputated on 4-7-03. Either repeated self-injurious behavior if isolated, or injury from cagemate if group housed.

Primate rq3810 2-6-03 listed as “self-traumatizing multiple sites on arms” 2-17-03 aggressive and making threatening gestures later again noted as being very aggressive and very active.

Primate Rq3703 – after several LDA administrations 6-27-03 craniotomy – “animal had excessive bleeding from dura midline during procedure” develops dyskinesia on right side.

Primate “mini me” F16931 – released from quarantine on 12-23-02. 2-7-03 examined for self-biting behavior. Placed arm in mouth. No treatment given at this time. 4-7-03 under arm and arm pit irritation looks like scratching and bruising, more on rt. Hand. 4-9-03 “animal shows clear signs of self-biting injury.”4-15-03 “minor self-inflicted injury to L shoulder area” 4-16-03 “under arm and armpit redness and bruising again” 4-17-03 “newly inflicted self injurious behaviors bilateral armpit area” 4-18-03 “Potential for pair housing. Transferred this animal in a cage across from a self-biter.” 4-21-03 “Health check filled out due to self bite wound under arm – red, swollen, puncture & blood.”4-25-03 put on lorazepam for self-injurious behavior. 4-28-03 changed to prozac. 4-30-03 “animal has new injury to r lower leg frontal; fresh blood seen.” 5-8-03 “animal brought to procedure area . . . for canine blunting procedure.”8-18-03 “Monkey has one very small self-injury under its right arm.” 8-23-03 “monkey is reported to have some episodes of mock self-biting. It is not actual biting but is placing arm in mouth. This may be a compulsion.” 9-30-3 ketamine for implant surgery. 10-3-03 serous discharge from wound margin (by implant) 12-9-03 ketamine for transport to necropsy room 9-30-03 surgery for implant

Primate mmu31323 Bill rhesus -- surgical procedure 5-11-04 head post /cylinder surgery after procedure “placed in chair” 5-27-04 – surgical procedure “implant repair” returned to chair 6-9-04 surgery: implant repair the primate had removed the sutures.

Primate rq3816 -- found dead in cage on 1-17-03. Died after administration of L-Dopa. Possible stroke.

Primate rq3697 -- on 1-15-03 given fluids due to lack of appetite and decreased urinary output. Noted for decreased appetite for seven days; on 1-23-03 animal found in cage inactive and crouched at 1 am. Dead by 8 am. By the time of death the animal is listed as thin with “Spinous processes and pelvic bones prominent.” This indicates severe debilitation.

Primate f-17034 surgery on 7-31-03. Reported on 8-4-03 for burn from heat support post-op. “Skin lesion on left flank and second one on left upper thigh.” 3 cm by 1.5cm. Possibly self-mutilation.

Primate rq 3719 3-12-03 red irritated area on neck, later on writs also 5-16-03 hair loss – may be pulling hair euthanized 11-5-03

Primate 106-144 typical of primates given MPTP injections. Overall depressed condition, often listed as eating less, losing weight, and becoming unresponsive; “Monkey is sitting crouched in cage (akinetic) responds minimally to stimulation. Will move and lift head. . . . hind feet ulcers/excoriations need to be cleaned . . . wt. loss > 10% “ These animals are clearly severely stressed and suffering yet no column E listings for UCSF. Weight loss occurred in period of 1 month.

Primate 30332 (researcher – Lisberger) -- 2-6-03 surgery to implant 2 recording cylinders and head implant – placed in chair after surgery – 3-11-03 implantation of eye coil – returned to chair consuming 500 ccs of water per day. 7-22-03 ketamine in the chair to touch up the acylic on the implant. Lacerations from wounds inflicted by cagemate on 9-12-03 – 9-15-03 examined in chair 9-18-03 shoulder wound re-opened 9-29-03 examined in chair.

Primate 30562 – (researcher – Lisberger) – cylinder implant 1-9-03 rapid recovery – placed in chair 2-26-03 “Sx site moderate amt of dried blood present. . . . Moderate amount of serous d/d at implant margin overall.” 2-27-03 “Sx site continues . . . small amt of serous d/d at skin margin.” 3/3/03 “swelling at caudal edge of implant site. Implant surgery was last week. Appetite has been reduced since surgery. Water consumption reduced too, even though offered well above normal.” 3-3-03 “Diarrhea seen in the cage.” 3-13-03 “Implant culture results shows some growth.” 3-7-03 “Dura peel . . . . kept in the chair w/his head fixed.” 4-1-03 “Dura peel finished; monkey still sedated; kept in the chair w/head fixed.” Dura peels done again on 4-22; 5-6; 5-19; 5-27; 6-11-03 “lab reports that monkey is performing poorly @ minimal work tasks.” Dura peels again on 6-22; 6-30; 7-6; 7-10; 7-19; 8-5; 8-16; 9-13; 9-28; 10-2; 10-13; 10-13; 10-20; 10-26; 11-2; 11-16; 12-1; 12-7; 12-23-03 monkey in chair for cleaning experienced 30 -45 sec seizure. Dura peels 1-10-04; 1-17-04; 2-3-04; 2-14-04; 2-28-04; 3-13-04; 4-19-04; 5-1-04; 5-15-04; 5-31-04; 6-11-04; 6-14-04; 6-25-04; 7-904; 7-15-04; 7-23-04; 9-10-04; 9-24-04;

Research Protocols:

Neural Control of Eye Movements – Stephen Lisberger project is 24 years old and is funded through 2009. uses 14 rhesus monkeys brings $1.3 million to UCSF per year through 2 separate grants. Quotes from Protocol:

”First we prepare a place on the skull to cement a connector to which the wires from the coil are soldered. We clear a spot about the size of a nickel on the top of the skull just above the brow and tap 3 orthopedic self-taping screws into the skull. Second we prepare the eye for the coil. We use a scalpel to make a circular incision around the limbus, and blunt dissection under the microscope to open a space between Tenson’s capsule and the sclera. A pre-mae coil is placed in the dissected space ans cemented to the eyeball using a tiny amount of sterile histacryl blue (Vetbond). Onr or two sutures are taken in the conjunctiva to hold it and tenon’s capsule tight around the sclera. The leads from the coil are led subcutaneously to the site prepared for the connector and soldered. Dental acrylic is used to cement the connector to the screws in the bone. . . .

We use 3 or 4 titanium plates to secure the head holding socket to the skull. The plates are about 4m wide and 2cm long and they have as many holes as can be fit. They are implanted in a radial configuration centered at the site on the skull where the head holding socket will sit. To implant the plates, we make a midline incision in the scalp and clear the muscle and periosteum off the bone. We bend the plaes so they follow the profile of the skull and we then use a hand drill to drill and tap 3 to 6 holes for screws that secure the plates to the skull. A small volume of dental acrylic is then used to secure the head-holding socket to the plates at the point where they converge and the skin is sutured to cover the plates and approximate nicely to the implant. . . .

A trephine is sued to expose the dura by cutting a circular hole in the calvarium at a site that is localized by the use of a stereotaxic apparatus. We place several bolts and/or self-tapping screws in the bone around the periphery of the opening and secure the cylinder to the bolts with dental acrylic. The cylinder is then filled with saline and antibiotic and caped with a secure plastic cap.

An incision is made behind the ear and blunt dissection is used to carefully clear a large area of temporal bone. While viewing through an operating microscope, a large burr is used to gently drill through the air cells of the temporal bone until the largest air cell, the antrum is exposed. The antrum is then gently enlarged until the bone of the labyrinth appears. A diamond burr is then used to gently thin the bone over the canal selected for the implant until a thin blue line appears, denoting endosteal bone. A dissecting pin is then used to make a tiny hole in the wall of the canal, and the active electrode is placed in contact with the bone in one of the air cells, and a combination of histacryl blue (vetbond) and dental cement is then used to secure the wires in place.”

Behavior training sessions last for one – two hours. All fluids are given during training sessions. Therefore, primates can go for 22 hours, 5 days per week without water or fluids of any kind.

Neural Correlates of Sensorimotor Adaptation in Macaque Cortex -- Similar procedures to above protocol, use of electrodes, recording cylinders, head restraint socket, etc. This protocol uses food and/or water deprivation.

Structural Basis of Amblyopia and Strabismus – Jonathan Horton $525,000

Rat experiments involve “monocular enucleation” removal of one eye. They use ketamine in rats. It is only approved for use in cats and primates. One eye is sewed closed to cause visual deprivation. Animal anesthetized for 5 days continuously. 24 hour monitoring is unlikely. These animals not covered by the AWA. Withheld procedures for primates and cats. According to publication circa 2003 the primates have one eye removed.

The Representation of Retinal Blood Vessels in Primate Striate Cortex

Daniel L. Adams and Jonathan C. Horton

Beckman Vision Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0730

The Journal of Neuroscience, July 9, 2003, 23(14):5984-5997

“Experimental animals. These experiments were performed on 12 adult squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) from an indoor colony at the California Regional Primate Research Center (Davis, CA). All procedures were approved by the University of California San Francisco Committee on Animal Research. Each animal was normal, verified by complete ophthalmological examination under ketamine anesthesia (15 mg/kg, i.m.). During this examination, the ocular fundi were photographed with a model TRC-FE camera (Topcon Medical Systems, Paramus, NJ) mounted on a platform that allowed easy pivoting around the center of the optical axis on the corneal front surface. These photographs were montaged using Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA).

After the photographic montages of the fundi were prepared (usually 1 week later), each animal was brought back to the laboratory for calibration of the pictures by projection of retinal landmarks onto a tangent screen. Each animal was given ketamine HCl (15 mg/kg, i.m.), intubated, and respirated with 2% isoflorane in a 50:50 mixture of O2/N2O. Under general anesthesia the following parameters were monitored continuously: temperature, EKG, heart rate, respiratory rate, tidal volume, end-tidal CO2, SpO2, inspiratory and expiratory isoflorane, O2, and N2O concentrations. Paralysis was induced with succinylcholine HCl at an infusion rate of 45 mg/kg, i.v.

The animal was placed in a stereotaxic frame mounted on a model 413 professional tripod (Gitzo, Créteil, France). The tripod allowed us to orient the stereotaxic frame to align the eye's visual axis perpendicular to the center of a 6 x 9 foot tangent screen located 57 inches away. The pupils were dilated with 2.5% neosynephrine HCl and 0.125% scopolamine HCl drops. A hard 7.5 mm diameter contact lens was used to prevent corneal drying.

The fundus montage (prepared in advance) was used to select a prominent retinal landmark (e.g., a vessel bifurcation). The landmark was then identified through the fundus camera in the anesthetized, paralyzed animal. The crosshair of the camera was focused on the landmark and locked in place. Next, a mirror was placed flush against the barrel of the objective lens, and the shutter was tripped with the back of the camera open. This reflected a small circle of light back to the tangent screen at a position corresponding to the retinal landmark. With practice, retinal landmarks in the central 30° could be projected with an accuracy of ±0.1°. After plotting 15 landmarks, we rechecked the position of the first few to ensure that no eye movements had occurred during the hour required for retinal calibration. Eye movements were rare because of the high dose of succinylcholine used during these brief measurements. The calibration process was repeated in the fellow eye, after the tripod was adjusted to position its optical axis perpendicular to the tangent screen. Positioning the optical axis perpendicular to the tangent screen made it easy to convert distance ( ) on the tangent screen from the foveal projection point to degrees eccentricity ( ) by using the formula = arctan /57.

After finishing the calibration process for each retina, we enucleated one eye using sterile technique.”


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