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Articles and Reports

Wake Forest Primate Experimentation Procedures:

Contextual Modulation of Central Thalamic Delay-Period Activity: Representation of Visual and Saccadic Goals

J Neurophysiol 91: 2628-2648, 2004. Melanie T. Wyder, Dino P. Massoglia and Terrence R. Stanford

Three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were prepared for chronic single-unit recording. Each monkey underwent two sterile surgical procedures while under general isoflurane anesthesia. During the first surgery, an MRI-compatible titanium post was attached to the skull using titanium screws and orthopedic bone cement. Also at this time, a preformed loop of Teflon-coated stainless steel wire (eye coil) was implanted beneath the conjuctiva to circumscribe the cornea of one eye (Judge et al. 1980). During subsequent training/recording sessions, the post served to restrain the monkey's head, whereas the eye coil provided an analog signal of eye position (Fuchs and Robinson 1966; Robinson 1963). Recovery from the initial surgery required 24 wk, during which time analgesics and antibiotics were administered as required.

Fully recovered animals were trained on the behavioral task (see following text). Once trained to a criterion level of performance, a second surgery was performed to place an MRI-compatible recording cylinder (Crist Instrument) over the oculomotor thalamus (OcTh). A presurgical MRI was carried out to optimize the stereotaxic coordinates of the cylinder for individual monkeys. The recording cylinder was positioned over a small craniotomy (about 15 mm diameter) and secured with titanium screws and bone cement. Daily recording sessions began on full recovery (23 wk).

Cocaine Self-Administration Produces a Progressive Involvement of Limbic, Association, and Sensorimotor Striatal Domains

The Journal of Neuroscience, April 7, 2004, 24(14):3554-3562 -- Linda J. Porrino, David Lyons, Hilary R. Smith, James B. Daunais, and Michael A. Nader

Subjects. Fourteen experimentally naive adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing between 7.6 and 11.5 kg (mean SD; 9.5 1.04) at the start of the study served as subjects. Monkeys were housed individually in stainless steel cages with water ad libitum; animals had physical and visual contact with each other. Their body weights were maintained at 9095% of free-feeding weights by banana-flavored pellets earned during the experimental sessions and by supplemental feeding of Lab Diet Monkey Chow, provided no sooner than 30 min after the session. All procedures were performed in accordance with established practices as described in National Institutes of Health Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. In addition, all procedures were reviewed and approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Wake Forest University.

Behavioral apparatus. Cocaine self-administration and food-reinforced responding occurred in ventilated and sound-attenuated operant chambers (1.5 x 0.74 x 0.76 m; Med Associates, East Fairfield, VT) designed to accommodate a primate chair (Model R001, Primate Products, Redwood City, CA). The chamber contained an intelligence panel (48 x 69 cm), which consisted of two retractable levers (5 cm wide) and three stimulus lights. The levers were positioned within easy reach of the monkey sitting in the primate chair. One gram of food pellets was delivered from a feeder located on the top of the chamber. A peristaltic infusion pump (753110, Cole-Parmer Co., Chicago, IL) was used to deliver drug injections at a rate of 1 ml/10 sec to those animals self-administering cocaine.

See also : Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC

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