Home Page
About SAEN
Articles and Reports
Contact Us
Events and Campaigns
Fact Sheets
Financial Information
How You Can Help
Make a Donation, Please!
Media Coverage
Picture Archive
Press Releases
Resources and Links
Grass Roots Org. List

Stop Animal Exploitation NOW!
S. A. E. N.
"Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation"

Articles and Reports

Second Response to Mr. Hatch of Wake Forest University

Mr. Hatch, Mr. Wright, Mr. Stanford, (new additions: Mr. Deadwyler, Ms. Porrino,)

Since one issue of our discussion was somewhat muddled, that being water access for non-human primates, I have attached the most recently available USDA form (2004) which listed several projects that involved substantial periods of limited access to water. One of these projects is titled: " Diencephalic Mechanisms of Visuomotor Integration."

According to the National Institutes of Health CRISP database, this is the title of Mr. Stanford's Grant. So, unless his procedures have changed substantially, I will assume that it still involves extended periods of limited/no access to water/liquids.

In the USDA report listed above, Diencephalic Mechanisms of Visuomotor Integration is listed in a section, along with 2 other projects that discuss "exceptions to the requirements for watering nonhuman primates" and the protocol listing for this project states "Access to water is regulated such that the first fluid intake for the day will occur during a training or experimental session. This information also says that the primates will be used in experiments from Monday - Friday. It appears from this information that in at least some instances, if not the majority of instances, these primates receive water/fluids only during the actual experimental paradigm.

Clearly, Wake Forest has recognized in the past that these primates, as well as others, were deprived of water for extended periods.

First, as the credentialed experts whose statements I have already provided state, these projects should more correctly be listed in column E of form 7023. Since, as is obvious from the attached form, these documents already list these experiments as something not meeting the USDA standards for primate watering, our first request is that you simply report these projects more accurately, and that these projects be listed as causing unrelieved pain/distress, this should not be a major change.

Second, I have requested the arrangement of a meeting to discuss the elimination of such procedures as would obviously cause unrelieved pain/distress through water deprivation, restraint chair use, and the attachment of devices to the skulls of non-human primates. I would appreciate if we can address these things fully, since your facility has documented them in the past.

So that we may have a more fully substantive discussion of these issues, I have also requested (via FOIA to the USDA) copies of all correspondence between the USDA/APHIS/AC and Wake Forest University for the last two years. This information will provide a much fuller picture of the projects currently underway at Wake Forest.

One reason that I have for requesting the tour of your facilities is to look into the current situation of the vervet colony that was transferred from the care of Lynn Fairbanks and the UCLA/VA facilities in Los Angeles to Wake Forest. The process of transporting 450 vervets cross country was, I am sure, difficult and somewhat stressful for the primates, especially since the NIH grant which discusses their shipment is titled: "QTL Mapping of Impulsivity-related Traits Before and After a Stressful Life Change." Since this is acknowledged by their former caretaker, Dr. Fairbanks, as stressful, and since I somehow doubt that these 450 vervets were tranquilized for the entirety of their journey, I was wondering if they would be listed in Column E on the relevant form 7023 for Wake Forest or for the facility from which they originated?

Also, I am somewhat concerned about the experimentation funded through Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grants DAAD19-02-1-0060 (Army Research Office) (S.A.D., L.P.) and BAA 04-12-F9034, National Institutes of Health Grants DA00119 and DA06634 (S.A.D., L.P.), DA09085 (L.P.), and NS14610 and MH64109 (J.M.S.).

According to the most recent publication of this research (The Journal of Neuroscience, December 26, 2007, 27(52):14239-14247 Systemic and Nasal Delivery of Orexin-A (Hypocretin-1) Reduces the Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Performance in Nonhuman Primates) the primates experience extended periods of sleep deprivation, the text of this article states:

"Eight adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing (8.011.0 kg) were used in this study. They were individually housed in stainless steel cages in temperature and humidity controlled colony rooms with lighting maintained on a 6:00 A.M/6:00 P.M. on/off schedule and fed a diet of monkey chow supplemented by fresh fruit to maintain daily monitored body weight. Fluid intake was restricted in time and amount such that a prescribed volume of an animal's normal daily fluid intake (80 ml/kg) was received either during the behavioral testing session, or within 2 h of being returned to the home cage.

Behavioral testing. Each monkey was exposed to six different testing conditions [Normal Vehicle, Alert orexin-A (i.v. and nasal), Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Deprivation + orexin-A (i.v. or nasal)], which required 1114 test sessions for each of the eight monkeys. Animals were placed in a primate chair 1.5 m in front of an LCD-front-projection screen for daily testing on a multi-image visual delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task and performed 150300 trials per session (Hampson et al., 2004; Porrino et al., 2005). Animals were trained to move a cursor tracked by a fluorescent marker attached to the back of the monkey's hand into the images by positioning the hand within a two dimensional coordinate system on the chair counter. Stimuli consisted of clip art images projected as 25 cm squares within a 3 x 3 position matrix onto a 1.0 x 1.0 m display. All images were unique to a particular trial during a session and no image was exposed on more than on one trial per session. Responses to appropriate stimuli were rewarded with diluted fruit juice delivered via a sipper tube placed in front of the mouth. All animals were trained to a stable baseline on the DMS task in which delay varied randomly from 1 to 90 s on a given trial, and the number of non-match stimuli (images) varied randomly from 1 to 7 in the Match phase of the task. As shown previously performance accuracy varied directly with duration of delay and number of non-match images (#images) presented in the Match phase (Hampson et al., 2004; Porrino et al., 2005). Sets of stimulus images were routinely changed every 2 weeks to maintain the trial-unique feature of each session. Animals performed the task on consecutive days each week.

Sleep deprivation procedure. Sleep deprivation consisted of 3036 h of continuous sleep prevention and wakefulness supervised continuously by laboratory personnel as previously verified using EEG recordings of sleep architecture. On sleep deprivation nights animals were maintained in a cage separate from their home cage in a continuously lighted room and kept awake with videos, music, occasional treats, gentle cage shaking, and interaction with technicians (working in 3 h shifts) through the night, until the usual daily testing time the next day. After testing animals were returned to their home cage and allowed to sleep. In a previous investigation (Porrino et al., 2005) evidence was provided that changes in brain imaging correlates of local glucose utilization during the DMS task (see below) were consistent with simultaneously recorded EEG changes produced by 3036 h of sleep deprivation. Hence, replication of the same brain imaging correlates of sleep deprivation in this study verified that each animal was tested in the same sleep loss condition as reported preciously. Intervals of 10 d, mandated by IACUC regulations, were interspersed between sleep deprivation episodes for each animal. There were no residual effects of the 3036 h sleep deprivation regimen on testing 24 h afterward at which time animals had returned to their normal sleep patterns."

Apparently, from this text, these primates are deprived of sleep for a minimum of 30 hours, confined to restraint chairs, and also have limited access to water. It is clear that these primates experience unrelieved pain/distress, and I am assuming that they comprise part of the 18 primates listed for North Carolina as experiencing unrelieved pain and distress during 2006. This publication also lists that these primates were individually housed, and so I was wondering how this is handled, with regard to requirements for environmental enhancement for primates?

As I am sure that you can imagine, I am concerned about the welfare of animals that experience such a protocol. Therefore, I am very interested in assuring that they are not in any immediate distress, hence my request for a tour.

And so, I would like to renew my request for the opening of dialogue regarding all of these experiments which involve unrelieved pain/distress in non-human primates. I think that it is absolutely vital that, in the interest of open dialogue, disclosure, and public information, that you allow a tour which will provide access to these laboratories.

I trust that in the future we can keep all discussions to a factual nature, and avoid statements such as those made by Mr. Wright in his initial reply.

Again, I hope to hear from a representative of Wake Forest University to discuss the arrangements necessary for the tour and meetings within the next five business days. 


Michael A. Budkie, A.H.T.,
Executive Director, SAEN

See also : USDA - APHIS Report - 2004
See also : Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC

Return to Articles and Reports

We welcome your comments and questions

This site is hosted and maintained by:
The Mary T. and Frank L. Hoffman Family Foundation
Thank you for visiting all-creatures.org.
Since date.gif (991 bytes)