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Stop Animal Exploitation NOW!
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"Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation"

Government Grants Promoting Cruelty to Animals

Washington University, St. Louis, MO

DORA E. ANGELAKI - Primate Testing - 2006

Grant Number: 5R01EY015271-03
Project Title: Studies of Three-Dimensional Ocular Kinematics
PI Information: PROFESSOR DORA E. ANGELAKI, [email protected] 

Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):
Strabismus, the misalignment of the two eyes, is a disorder of unknown etiology, caused by problems related to either the central innervation sent to the eye muscles and/or the eye muscles and orbital tissues themselves. Improving our understanding of the central and peripheral aspects of eye movement control is an important and necessary first step for an effective clinical diagnosis and treatment of strabismus patients. Our understanding of how the brain controls eye movements has benefited enormously from the comparison of neuronal activity with eye movements and the quantification of these relationships with mathematical models. Whereas this task has been very successful when considering eye movements in a single direction, mainly uncertainty, controversy and conflicting hypotheses currently exist when considering oculomotor control in three-dimensions. Part of the problem arises because arguments related to these controversies have been largely limited to behavioral observations. Very little data currently exist regarding the discharge properties of motor and premotor neurons for oculomotor control in 3D. Such a paucity of neurophysiological data includes the recent histological discovery of extraocular muscle pulleys and their postulated role in 3D eye movements (active pulley hypothesis). The long-term goal of these studies is to characterize neural activity during eye movements in 3D and to quantify these relationships with existing or expanded mathematical models of the oculomotor system. In this application, we propose a systematic series of experiments that, for the first time, will provide the missing link between behavior, imaging and modeling in understanding the role of mechanical and neural factors in 3D eye movement control. Accordingly, single unit recordings from motoneurons and premotor neurons during saccades, pursuit and the VOR will attempt to provide a comprehensive data set upon which existing and revised models of oculomotor function in 3D will be evaluated. Results from these experimental/modeling studies are fundamental in resolving these controversies and providing a comprehensive understanding of oculomotor function in health and disease.

Thesaurus Terms:

biomechanics, disease /disorder etiology, extraocular muscle, eye coordination disorder, eye movement, motor neuron, neurophysiology, vestibuloocular reflex oculomotor nerve, saccade, single cell analysis, three dimensional imaging /topography Macaca mulatta
SAINT LOUIS, MO 631304899
Fiscal Year: 2006
Project Start: 01-AUG-2004
Project End: 31-JUL-2008

The Journal of Neuroscience, February 7, 2007, 27(6):1346-1355

A Reevaluation of the Inverse Dynamic Model for Eye Movements

Andrea M. Green,1 Hui Meng,2 and Dora E. Angelaki2

1Département de Physiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1J4, and 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110

Animal preparation.
Four juvenile Macacca mulatta and one Macacca fascicularis monkeys were prepared for chronic recording of binocular eye movements and single-unit activities. Each animal was chronically implanted with a delrin head stabilization ring that was secured to the skull with inverted stainless steel T bolts. A delrin recording platform (consisting of a staggered matrix of holes spaced 0.8 mm apart) was stereotaxically placed inside the ring and served as a guide for electrode placement. In three of the animals, the platform was implanted with a 10° lateral/medial slant to allow bilateral access to the prepositus hypoglossi and abducens/oculomotor nerves and nuclei. Each animal was also implanted with dual eye coils on both eyes that were calibrated as explained in detail previously (Angelaki, 1998 ; Angelaki et al., 2000 ). All surgical procedures were performed under sterile conditions in accordance with institutional and National Institutes of Health guidelines.

Experimental set-up
During experiments, monkeys were seated upright in a primate chair secured inside a motion delivery system that consisted of a three-dimensional (3D) vestibular turntable mounted on a linear sled (Acutronics, Pittsburgh, PA). Binocular eye movements were measured with a three-field magnetic search coil system (16 inch cube; CNC Engineering, Seattle, WA) that was attached to the inner gimbal of the vestibular turntable. Visual targets were back-projected onto a flat screen mounted 20 cm away from the animal. A wall-mounted laser and x–y mirror galvanometer system (General Scanning, Billerica, MA) provided world-fixed targets for gaze stabilization during head/body motion. A second laser-galvanometer system was mounted on top of the vestibular turntable such that it moved with the animal and provided a head-fixed target; this enabled evaluation of neural responses to vestibular stimulation when eye movements were suppressed or cancelled (i.e., VOR cancellation tasks). The second system was also used to provide visual targets for fixation and smooth pursuit tasks.

Please email:  DORA E. ANGELAKI, [email protected] to protest the inhumane use of animals in this experiment. We would also love to know about your efforts with this cause: [email protected]

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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore research facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of this situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not mean that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable animals. A blank form does mean that the facility in question has not used covered animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to comprise over 90% of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the majority of animals used at research facilities are not even counted.

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