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Government Grants Promoting Cruelty to Animals

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA

CAREY D. BALABAN - Primate Testing - 2006

Grant Number: 5R01DC000739-16
Project Title: Vestibulo-Cerebellar Circuits
PI Information: PROFESSOR CAREY D. BALABAN, [email protected] 

Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):
The proposed neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies continue investigations of the organization of pathways that mediate vestibular influences on autonomic and limbic pathways, particularly in pathways that mediate the linkage between balance disorders and anxiety disorders. Three circuitry networks appear to be critical for balance-anxiety link: a vestibulo-parabrachial nucleus (PBN) network, coeruleo-vestibular (noraderenergic) network and raphe-vestibular (serotonergic and non-serotonergic) networks. The physiology and connections of the PBN network will be studied in primates; the organization of the noradrenergic and raphe pathways will be explored in rats. Our on-going primate studies have shown that a caudal region of PBN contains neurons that receive vestibular nuclear input and are sensitive to whole body rotation. New electrophysiologic studies in alert primates are directed at elucidating the spatial organization of responses of parabrachial nucleus neurons during whole body rotation. Two main foci will be characterization of otolith-related responses and a test of the hypothesis that responses will differ for predictable and unpredictable whole body rotation in three dimensions. Anatomical studies in primates are also designed elucidate the afferent and efferent connections of this vestibulo-recipient region of PBN. Our on-going studies have shown that the dorsal raphe nucleus, nucleus raphe obscurus and nucleus raphe pallidus provide serotonergic input to the vestibular nuclei. Anatomical studies will elucidate the topography of these projections, the distribution of immunoreactive serotonin receptors in the vestibular nuclei and test specific hypotheses regarding the organization of collateralized raphe projections to the vestibular nuclei and other sites. Finally, anatomical studies in rats will test specific hypotheses regarding the organization of collateralized noradrenergic projections to the vestibular nuclei and other sites.

Thesaurus Terms:
autonomic nervous system, cerebellum, neuroanatomy, parabrachial nucleus, vestibular nuclei
amygdala, brain electrical activity, central neural pathway /tract, hippocampus, hypothalamus, neuron, norepinephrine, otocyst /otolith, serotonin, serotonin receptor
Macaca, laboratory rat
Fiscal Year: 2006
Project Start: 01-MAR-1990
Project End: 31-MAY-2008

J Neurophysiol (December 1, 2002). 10.1152/jn.00499.2002

Submitted on 18 July 2002 Accepted on 16 August 2002

J Neurophysiol 88: 3175-3193, 2002

Responses of Primate Caudal Parabrachial Nucleus and Kölliker-Fuse Nucleus Neurons to Whole Body Rotation

Carey D. Balaban,1,2,3 David M. McGee,2 Jianxun Zhou,3 and Charles A. Scudder1,2

Departments of 1Otolaryngology, 2Neurobiology, and 3Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213

Surgical procedures
All surgical procedures were conducted under aseptic conditions in an animal surgical suite at the Central Animal Facility of the University of Pittsburgh. Three female macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) were premedicated with atropine (0.05 mg/kg im) and ketamine (12 mg/kg im). After endotracheal intubation, anesthesia was maintained by inhalation of a 1-1.5% halothane-nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture. Three dental acrylic lugs were implanted for secure but painless head stabilization during recording sessions. One lug, positioned centrally on the top of the skull, served as a pedestal for electrical connectors; the other two lugs were positioned behind the ears. At the site of each lug, a 15 × 20-mm patch of skin and periosteum was removed, and small holes were drilled in the skull with a dental burr. Small stainless steel screws were tapped into these holes, and the lug was constructed by applying layers of dental acrylic around the screws to a height of approximately 9 mm.

A "search coil" was implanted on the right eye to measure eye movements, based on the technique of Judge et al. (1980) . The conjunctiva was cut at the limbus, and a preformed 16-mm-diam coil (3 turns of Teflon-insulated stainless steel wire) was sutured to the sclera. Lead wires were passed subcutaneously to a connector on top of the skull. The conjunctiva was sutured with 7-0 vicryl to cover the coil.
A 20-mm-diam, 10-mm-high stainless steel recording chamber was implanted surgically over a hole that was trephined in the parietal bone to permit the chamber to contact the intact dura mater. The chamber was centered at 1 mm left of the midline and +1 to +3.5 mm anterior to the ear bars in different monkeys, angled 15° posteriorly. This approach permitted complete exploration of the left parabrachial nucleus and access to the medial edge of the right parabrachial nucleus. Stainless steel screws were anchored within the surrounding bone through small burr holes, and dental acrylic applied to fix the chamber to the skull. The chamber was filled with "triple antibiotic ointment" and covered with a tightly fitting metal cap.

Recording sessions
Recording sessions began after at least a 2-wk recovery period. The monkeys were seated in a primate chair with their heads fixed to the chair in the stereotaxic plane. They were placed in a two-axis rotation device enclosed in a soundproof, lightproof, and shielded booth. Horizontal rotation about a (vertical) yaw axis was driven by an 80 ft-lb servo-controlled motor (Contraves), which reliably produced waveforms ranging from velocity trapezoids of unlimited duration to sine waves exceeding 10 Hz. The stimulator had an inner axis for producing oscillations in a vertical plane or static deviations up to 90°. With the monkey facing forward, the oscillations were oriented in the pitch plane. Rotating the primate chair 90° in the apparatus allowed oscillations in the roll plane. Intermediate angles produced oscillations in the planes of the vertical semicircular canals.

Please email: CAREY D. BALABAN, [email protected] to protest the inhumane use of animals in this experiment. We would also love to know about your efforts with this cause: [email protected]

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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore research facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of this situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not mean that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable animals. A blank form does mean that the facility in question has not used covered animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to comprise over 90% of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the majority of animals used at research facilities are not even counted.

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