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Government Grants Promoting Cruelty to Animals

University of Washington, Seattle, WA

ALBERT F. FUCHS - Primate Testing - 2006

Grant Number: 5R01EY000745-35
Project Title: Oculomotor System Studies

Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant):
Adaptation of the amplitude of saccadic eye movements is necessary so that saccadic accuracy can be maintained throughout life despite the changes caused by development, injury and aging. The long-term objective of this grant is to study the mechanism and site(s) of saccadic amplitude adaptation in non-human primates. We will address this issue in several ways. First, we will estimate the level of the saccadic system at which adaptation takes place by determining whether behavioral adaptation of reactive (more simple) saccades transfers to higher-order (more "cognitive") saccades. Amplitude adaptation will be produced by requiring monkeys to track a stepping target that is jumped forward or backward during a targeting saccade, so that the adaptation mechanism is deceived into thinking that the saccade is in error. Over approximately 1000 such deceptions, monkeys gradually reduce this error by adjusting saccade amplitude. If adaptation of a reactive saccade does not transfer to a higher-order saccade, they must have different sites for saccadic plasticity. Second, we will record from the oculomotor cerebellar vermis during behavioral adaptation and assess the associated changes in simple spike and climbing fiber activity in Purkinje cells. We expect changes in neuronal firing that will indicate how the saccadic error delivered by the climbing fibers shapes the simple spike firing of Purkinje cells. Third, during behavioral adaptation we also will examine the change in activity of cells in the caudal fastigial nucleus (CFN), which receives direct inhibition from the vermal Purkinje cells and, in turn, projects directly to the premotor brain stem generator of saccadic eye movements. We expect that changes in firing of CFN cells will be appropriate to effect downstream structures to alter saccade amplitude. Because of the remarkable similarities of simian and human saccadic behavior, the results of these experiments should have considerable relevance in the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of human patients with chronic saccadic disorders.

Thesaurus Terms:
neural information processing, saccade, visual pathway, visual tracking
behavior test, brain stem, cerebellar Purkinje cell, cerebellum, environmental adaptation, neural plasticity, neuroregulation, oculomotor nerve, pons, superior colliculus, visual feedback, visual field, visual stimulus Macaca mulatta, behavioral /social science research tag

Office of Sponsored Programs, SEATTLE, WA 98105
Fiscal Year: 2006
Project Start: 01-SEP-1976
Project End: 30-APR-2009

J Neurophysiol 97: 618-634, 2007. First published October 25, 2006; doi:10.1152

Contribution of the Frontal Eye Field to Gaze Shifts in the Head-Unrestrained Monkey: Effects of Microstimulation

Thomas A. Knight1,3 and Albert F. Fuchs1,2,3

1Graduate Program in Neurobiology and Behavior, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and 3Washington National Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Submitted 9 March 2006; accepted in final form 21 October 2006

General procedures
These experiments were performed with two male rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta (weight 4–9 kg). During asceptic surgery, a scleral search coil for measuring gaze position in space was implanted on each monkey’s left eye (Fuchs and Robinson 1966 ) and a similar coil for measuring head position in space was mounted on the head in the coronal plane, just anterior to the axis of horizontal head rotation. We implanted a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–compatible recording cylinder (Crist Instruments, Damascus, MD) over each FEF in the first animal and over the right FEF in the second animal. During experimental sessions, each animal sat in a primate chair, which restricted its upper body rotations, and made gaze shifts from one target position to another with the head completely unrestrained. The chair was placed in a dark sound-deadened booth and the animal’s condition was monitored with an infrared video system.

Experimental procedures

Each animal was trained to make normal, visually guided gaze shifts to a step change in target position between two sequentially (within 5 ms) illuminated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on an array in front of the animal (LED spacing every 1° of visual angle, ±80° horizontally, ±30° vertically and obliquely). If the gaze shift landed within a reward window surrounding the illuminated (target) LED, the animal received an applesauce reward.

Please email:  ALBERT F. FUCHS, [email protected] to protest the inhumane use of animals in this experiment. We would also love to know about your efforts with this cause: [email protected]

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Rats, mice, birds, amphibians and other animals have been excluded from coverage by the Animal Welfare Act. Therefore research facility reports do not include these animals. As a result of this situation, a blank report, or one with few animals listed, does not mean that a facility has not performed experiments on non-reportable animals. A blank form does mean that the facility in question has not used covered animals (primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Rats and mice alone are believed to comprise over 90% of the animals used in experimentation. Therefore the majority of animals used at research facilities are not even counted.

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