Animal Tests and Scientifically-Validated Alternatives:
Alternatives to Animal Testing

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Alternatives to Animal Testing

Animal Tests and Scientifically-Validated Alternatives
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These are examples of tests that completely replace the use animals. Alternatives also exist that reduce the use of animals, with the goal of working toward complete replacement.

Endpoint (purpose) Animal Test Animal test description Non-Animal Test 1st Endorsement
Skin Corrosion Draize rabbit skin test Apply substance to a rabbit's shaved skin;  can irritate or erode skin EPISKIN™ April 19981
Skin Corrosion Draize rabbit skin test Apply substance to a rabbit's shaved skin;  can irritate or erode skin EpiDerm™ May 19981
Antibody production Mouse ascites method Inject antigens into a mouse's abdomen to induce painful fluid accumulation In vitro production of monoclonal antibodies November 19971,4
Vaccine Potency Guinea pig challenge procedure Immunize a guinea pig with vaccine and six weeks later give lethal dose of the toxin Toxin binding inhibition December 20001
Skin Corrosion Draize rabbit skin test Apply substance to a rabbit's shaved skin; can irritate or erode skin CORROSITEXTM December 20001
Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) Mouse bioassay Feed PSP toxin to a mouse and measure how long it takes the mouse to die for various doses   Lawrence method of high performance liquid chromatography June 20055
Pyrogenicity                (effect on body temperature) Rabbit pyrogen test Administer toxic substance iv to a rabbit and measure body temperature for several hours Human whole blood IL-1 March 20061
Pyrogenicity Rabbit pyrogen test Administer toxic substance iv to a rabbit and measure body temperature for several hours Human whole blood IL-6 March 20061
Pyrogenicity Rabbit pyrogen test Administer toxic substance iv to a rabbit and measure body temperature for several hours Human cryopreserved whole blood IL-1 March 20061
Pyrogenicity Rabbit pyrogen test Administer toxic substance iv to a rabbit and measure body temperature for several hours PBMC IL-6 March 20061
Pyrogenicity Rabbit pyrogen test Administer toxic substance iv to a rabbit and measure body temperature for several hours MM6 IL-6 March 20061
1 European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) Scientific Advisory Committee (ECVAM, 2006).      
2 Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Test Guideline subject to OECD Mutual Acceptance of Data requirements (OECD, 1981; 2006).
3 Partial acceptance as a “positive screen” according to which negative results in vitro (ICCVAM, 2002).
4 Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (1997).
5 AOAC (2005).  

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