Michael W. Fox
Understanding the intrinsic value of animals in particular, and their instrumental value as contributors and indicators of ecological health and biodiversity, can help us place reasonable ethical limits and legal constraints on potentially harmful human values, purposes and demands that are placed upon the animal kingdom.
Many good people have written eloquent, heart-felt words to inspire concern for animals and for their protection from human exploitation, ignorance, cruelty and indifference, especially over the last three centuries. During this time, however, animal suffering, industrial-scale exploitation and annihilation of species and habitats have intensified and spread globally. Regardless of moving appeals for compassionate action and respect for all life, there has been a veritable quantum leap in the scope of animal use and abuse. This means that the ‘voices for the voiceless’ continues to fall on deaf ears, to be either unheard or even ridiculed by those with vested interest in protecting not animals but the status quo of their exploitation.
Pioneering biological scientist Charles Darwin wrote: “Love for all living creatures is the most noble attribute of man”, and as a reminder he would write on his hand, “Not superior.” Before him, Leonardo da Vinci, who abjured the consumption of meat, opined that “the time will come when people such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look upon the murder of men.” The late Pope John Paul 11 asserted in an address before a gathering of veterinarians, “It is certain that animals were created for man’s use.”
Today there is no unanimity between different cultures and nation states as to how we should treat animals and what duties we have to facilitate their well-being. While in most societies there are individuals who care deeply for animals, their well-being is undermined by economic priorities in all nations rich and poor. Profit and investor-driven animal industries, notably large scale factory livestock farming and fishing, and in the third world, wildlife poaching, (for bush meat, elephants for their ivory, rhinos for their horns and tigers for their bones), and inadequate veterinary services for family-sustaining livestock, broken beasts of burden and ever-multiplying community dogs, mean a quantum leap in animal suffering over the past few decades. Human population expansion and increasing affluence combine to create another quantum leap in wildlife extinctions, habitat destruction, climate change and rising demand for meat and other products of animal origin. Improvements in the care and welfare of domestic animals and captive wildlife, and efforts to protect threatened species are overshadowed by the intensified expansion of animal exploitation.
The rights and interests of indigenous peoples who strive to live in traditional and ecologically sustainable ways need greater respect and legal standing. But as all cultures must either evolve or perish, including indigenous people whose proclaimed traditional native rights to harpoon whales, slaughter dolphins and to kill wolves and other threatened species for ceremonial purposes have questionable bioethical validity in this modern age with its twin ecologically devastating crises of overpopulation and over-consumption.
The continued international trade in increasingly rare species for the pet trade and animal collector, zoo and folk medicine markets, and the trade in furs from captive-raised and live-trapped animals, call for prohibition rather than tighter regulations and enforcement. Wildlife having to ‘pay its own way’ by generating revenues from safari trophy hunting, like the lions of Tanzania, and the wolves of North America from the sale of recreational ‘sport’ hunting and commercial trapping licenses, should be questioned when wildlife management practices are closer to farming than enhancing ecosystem health and optimal biodiversity. So called ‘canned hunts’ of indigenous and exotic, imported wild species raised on private ranches, and from surplus zoo and collector stock, are anathema to humane sensibilities.
The commercial entertainment value of wild animals exploited by circuses and zoos, erroneously claimed to be of educational value, is surely less than the animals’ intrinsic worth and right to live normal lives in their natural environments. The commercial and scientific value of animals, including the transgenic, (genetically engineered) and cloned, used in research as human disease models regrettably overshadows progress in public health, disease prevention and the adoption of non-animal research alternatives.
Just as the ecological value of indigenous wild species, and of humanely and sustainably managed farmed animals is being more widely recognized, so the judicial system is beginning to accept the emotional value of companion animals. A greater cross-cultural appreciation of the value of animals as healers and teachers would do much to elevate animals’ legal and moral standing. However, the subjective, traditional cultural values of animals---totemic, symbolic, esthetic, social and spiritual,---are being increasingly discounted and ignored politically and ethically, and marginalized by the objective, materialistic, quasi-scientific and economic values of the dominant industrial-consumer society. But with greater recognition and adoption of the principles of One Health (which links human health with animal and environmental health), the value of healthy animal populations, wild and domesticated, may yet become a significant public health priority.
A redoubling of civil society humane, animal protection and welfare initiatives, nationally and internationally, is urgently needed, and should be high on the agenda of the United Nations. These initiatives must include more effective and informative public outreach, mass-media engagement, the commitment of public officials, legislators, educators, universities, religious leaders and institutions, and the private, corporate sector. Human health and economic security are dependent upon environmental quality, optimal ecosystem biodiversity and animal health and well-being. Realizing these ‘One Earth-One Health’ connections to inspire concerted international action to improve animal health and well-being, and conservation, preservation and restoration of wild lands,--- as per the mission of organizations such as the World Vets (www.worldvets.org) Veterinarians Without Borders (www.vetwithoutborders.net) and the Institute for Global Health & Health Policy (www.ighhp.org)—is enlightened self-interest; and as important as public health, human population and consumption control, food security and air, soil and water quality.
The real value of any living being, be it a tree, a whale or a wolf, can be better appreciated with a scientific understanding of their ecological purposes. Trees are more than firewood and lumber; whales more than oil and meat; wolves more than trophies and fur coats. Our ecological, economic, social, emotional, cultural and spiritual dependence on domestic and wild animals has a history more ancient than any existing civilization on Earth today. When we can separate from all such dependencies and associated values and have a more objective, impartial understanding of the biology and ecological purpose of all living beings, we will better appreciate their inherent value. Then we may generate the necessary bioethical principles to help govern and guide all our relationships with the sentient life community of planet Earth for the greater good.
Understanding the intrinsic value of animals in particular, and their instrumental value as contributors and indicators of ecological health and biodiversity, can help us place reasonable ethical limits and legal constraints on potentially harmful human values, purposes and demands that are placed upon the animal kingdom. Human progress may then be measured by a quantum decrease in the suffering of animals, and with compassion as the compass of civilization the word humane will become synonymous with being human. For Charles Darwin, as reflected in his book The Descent of Man, this would indeed be an evolutionary leap for Homo sapiens, and from the perspective of Albert Schweitzer, MD, “Until he extends his circle of compassion to include all living things, man himself will not himself find peace.”
Much suffering we bring upon ourselves, our families, communities and other animals wild and domesticated when we are not mindful of the consequences of our actions. We are challenged to live as harmlessly as possible in a culture of consumerism where life is treated as a commodity along with Nature’s resources. While natural disasters, many aggravated by various human activities, along with famine and pestilence, take their toll, we humans and other species who share this Earth with us will continue to be victims in this quantum field of human-caused suffering from generation to generation until there is veneration for all living beings, plant and animal, who express and sustain the life and beauty of our planet home. Their well-being is integral to our own in body, mind and spirit.
The Earth will be more secure when all children are educated and inspired to regard and treat all creatures great and small as original blessings, as feeling-beings (even rats show empathy) who have a place in the wheel of life, some as companions, healers, teachers, and many others as co-creators, helping maintain a healthy environment for us all. Such sensitive regard is the foundation for bioethical sensibility which is the guiding light for a sane and civil society and more viable civilization.
There is a quickening of chaos and suffering in the world and of humankind’s awakening. This collision of dark and light creates the spark of human self-realization that can catalyze our evolution as a species and revolution as a global community to become pan-empathic in relation to the sentient life community of planet Earth. We then become re-connected with all that births and grows, feels and dies, loves and knows; every leaf, tree, forest, whale, wolf and sun-burst singing lark.
Dr. Michael W. Fox is a well-known veterinarian, former vice president of
The Humane Society of the United States, former vice president of Humane
Society International and the author of more than 40 adult and children’s
books on animal care, animal behavior and bioethics. He is also a graduate
veterinarian from the Royal Veterinary College, London, whose research lead
to a PhD (Medicine) and a DSc (ethology/animal behavior) from the University
of London, England.