Vegan Health ArticlesFish and Shellfish: Contamination Problems Preclude Inclusion in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans
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From Spring 2004


1. Committee on the Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury; National Research Council. Toxicological effects of methylmercury. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 2000.

2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mercury levels in commercial fish and shellfish. Accessed April 2004 at: .
3. Bender, M. Letter to FDA about better protecting women and children from exposure to mercury. February 24, 2004. Accessed April 2004 at: 

4. Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP, Bodurow CC. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112:562-70.
5. Schober SE, Sinks TH, Jones RL, Bolger PM, McDowell M, Osterloh J., et al. Blood mercury levels in US Children and women of childbearing age, 1999-2000. JAMA 2003;289:1667-74.

6. Cordier S, Deplan F, Mandereau L, Hemon D. Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions. Brit J Ind Med 1991;48:375-81.

7. Hu FGB, Bronner L, Willett WC, Stampfer MK, Rexrode KM, Albert CM, Hunter D, Manson JE. Fish and omega-3a fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA 2002;287:1815-21.

8. Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, King I, Weinmann S, Bovbjerg VE, Kushi L, Cobb LA, Copass MK, Psaty BM, Lelmaitre R, Retzlaff B, Knopp RH. Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:208S-12S.

9. Guallar E, Sanz-Gallardo MI, van't Veer P, Bode P, Aro A, Gomez-Aracena J, Kark JD, Riemersma RA, Martin-Moreno JM, Kok FJ. Heavy Metals and Myocardial Infarction Study Group. Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1747-54.

10. Salonen JT, Seppanen K, Nyyssonen K, Korpela H, Kauhanen J, Kantola M, Tuomilehto J, Esterbauer H, Tatzber F, Salonen R. Intake of mercury from fish, lipid peroxidation, and the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary, cardiovascular and any death in eastern Finnish men. Circulation 1995;91:645-55.

11. Grandjean P, Murata K, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Weihe P. Cardiac autonomic activity in methylmercury neurotoxicity: 14-year follow-up of a Faroese birth cohort. Pediatrics 2004;144:169-76.

12. Murata K, Weihe P, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Jørgensen PJ, Grandjean P. Delayed brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in 14-year-old children exposed to methylmercury. Pediatrics 2004;144:177-83.

13. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Update: National listing of fish and wildlife advisories. Fact Sheet EPA-823-F-03-003, May 2003. Accessed April 2004 at: .

14. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Health effects of PCBs. June 2002. Accessed April 2004 at:

15. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Dioxins. April 2004. Accessed April 2004 at: .

16. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Persistent Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) Chemical Program: Dioxins and furans. April 2003. Accessed April 2004 at: .

17. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Consumer factsheet on: Polychlorinated biphenyls. April 2004. Accessed April 2004 at: .

18. Ueno D, Takahashi S, Tanaka H, Subramanian AN, Fillmann G, Nakata H, Lam PK, Zheng J, Muchtar M, Prudente M, Chung KH, Tanabe S. Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;45:378-89.

19. Hicks HE, De Rosa CT. Sentinel human health indicators: to evaluate the health status of vulnerable communities. Can J Public Health. 2002;93:S57-61.

20. Hites RA, Foran JA, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJ. Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon. Science 2004;303:226-9.

21. Mahaffey KR. Methylmercury: Epidemiology Update. Presentation at the National Forum on Contaminants in Fish, San Diego, January 28, 2004. Accessed April 2004 at: 

22. Hergenrather J, Hlady G, Wallace B, Savage E. Pollutants in breast milk of vegetarians. N Engl J Med 1981;304:792.

23. Noren K. Levels of organochlorine contaminants in human milk in relation to the dietary habits of the mothers. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983;72:811-6.

24. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish. EPA-823-R-04-005, March 2004. Accessed April 2004 at: .

25. Kaufman M. Women, children warned about tuna consumption: government offers more specific guidelines on mercury in fish. Washington Post, March 19, 2004. Accessed April 2004 at: .

26. Wright JD, Kennedy-Stephenson J, Wang CY, McDowell MA, Johnson DC. Trends in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients --- United States, 1971—2000. MMWR 2004;53:80-2. Accessed April 2004 at: .

27. Knight EL, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE, Spiegelman D, Curhan GC. The Impact of Protein Intake on Renal Function Decline in Women with Normal Renal Function or Mild Renal Insufficiency. Ann Int Med 2003;138:460-7.

28. Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Protein consumption and bone fractures in women. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:472-9.

29. Gin H, Rigalleau V, Aparicio M. Lipids, protein intake, and diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Metab 2000;26:45-53.

30. Pennington JAT. Bowes and Church’s food values of portions commonly used. 15th Edition, Harper Perennial, 1989.

31. Odeleye OE, Watson RR. Health implications of the n-3 fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:177-8.

32. Kinsella JE. Reply to O Odeleye and R Watson. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:178.

33. Hunter JE. n-3 Fatty acids from vegetable oils. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:809-14.

34. Mantzioris E, James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary substitution with an alpha-linolenic acid-rich vegetable oil increases eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in tissues. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1304-9.

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We began this archive as a means of assisting our visitors in answering many of their health and diet questions, and in encouraging them to take a pro-active part in their own health. We believe the articles and information contained herein are true, but are not presenting them as advice. We, personally, have found that a whole food vegan diet has helped our own health, and simply wish to share with others the things we have found. Each of us must make our own decisions, for it's our own body. If you have a health problem, see your own physician.