Newsletter - Animal Writes sm
8 September 1999 Issue

Rabies, Animals, and Us
by [email protected]

We are all aware of the risk of rabies when handling strange or wild animals. Probably no one is as concerned about this as those who must work with these animals in their daily jobs. Wildlife rehabbers, veterinarians, animal shelter workers, all are exposed to potentially diseased animals each day.

There are many "old wives tales" about rabies, fueled by inaccurate depictions of this disease in movies such as "Cujo" and even "Old Yeller". What are our risks? What are the common symptoms of an animal infected with rabies?

First of all, you should know that rabies is a very rare disease. The promotion of rabies vaccines for animals has greatly reduced the incidence of the disease. That's the good news. The bad news is that rabies is virtually 100% fatal to animals and humans once it is contracted and symptoms develop, therefore we cannot take risks with this disease.

Rabies, in theory, can be contracted by any warm blooded animal. This includes ALL mammals and birds. In practice things are much different. The disease is extremely rare in birds. In mammals the most common carriers of the disease are dogs, cats, bats, raccoons, skunks, foxes and coyotes.

Opossums are virtually immune to rabies. This is attributed to their low normal body temperature, which runs 8-10 degrees below normal for other mammals.

Rodents such as squirrels, mice, woodchucks, beavers are susceptible to the disease but their lifestyles are not conducive to it. It is extremely rare in these animals.

Rabies is most commonly transmitted by a bite from the animal, but not always. It can be transmitted from a scratch with a claw infected with saliva from the animal or even from a lick exposed to an open wound. Even an animal that has saliva on it's fur can transmit rabies to someone with an open wound.

Because of this method of transmission, it is more common in predators and other less social animals. Foxes, coyotes, raccoons and skunks frequently fight amongst themselves for food, making their lifestyles conducive to transmission. Bats live in close proximity to each other and frequently bite and lick each other. Stray dogs and cats frequently fight amongst themselves and with wild animals.

What are the symptoms in animals? Well, certainly not the "attack-anything-that-moves" or the "search-and-destroy" attitudes depicted in movies. The most common symptoms are depression, unsteadiness, convulsions, partial paralysis, heavy saliva production, runny eyes, runny nose. The animal's throat swells making it difficult to eat and drink, though they will try. Hence the name "hydrophobia" (fear of water) to describe rabies.

The most common symptom is, simply, unusual behavior. Raccoons, for instance, are nocturnal. It is not normal for them to be out during the day. It is normal for them to flee when approached. A usually friendly and playful dog retreats, hides, becomes depressed and declines food and water. When an animal acts in an unusual manner, rabies must be suspected. The much more common disease of distemper exhibits similar symptoms. Distemper is not a danger to humans however, so the animal must be considered "rabid" for the sake of safety.

Where does the reputation for viciousness come from? Animals such as these will not normally bite or act aggressive to humans. They use their natural abilities to avoid humans. But when they are infected with a disease like rabies they do not have control of their functions. They can't run, they can't hide. When approached, they feel they have no choice but to be aggressive and bite. But they do not roam the earth looking for trouble. They will not "attack" for no reason.

If you observe an animal acting unusually, contact your local law enforcement, animal control, or wildlife rehabilitator. Keep the phone numbers of these people handy. Your state's wildlife agency can tell you the names of licensed rehabilitators in your area. So can the National Wildlife Rehabilitators Assn. Keep an eye on the animal, but do not attempt to touch or capture it. People who work with these animals have special equipment making capture easier and safer. But they appreciate it when the location of the animal can be identified.

It is most important that the animal not be ignored. You are doing a service to the animal and others animals by seeing that the animal is captured. A sick animal will only infect others, and if the disease is not rabies, it can be treated and later released by a rehabber. In any case, it is the compassionate and responsible action to see that the animal is captured.

What precautions should we take? Persons who work with these animals should receive the pre-exposure rabies vaccine on a regular basis. All persons with companion animals need to be sure their animals are current with all vaccines. This is crucial to prevent the disease.

Always wear gloves when handling any wild or unfamiliar animal. Always wash your hands thoroughly after handling any wild or unknown animal. If you are bitten or scratched by a wild or unfamiliar animal, thoroughly wash the wound immediately and notify your local health department. The animal will be quarantined for observation for 10-14 days. If the animal dies it will be tested for rabies. In some cases the animal may be euthanized to be tested.

If you are bitten and the animal escapes, you must report the bite and undergo the series of vaccinations to prevent rabies. The modern rabies vaccine is nothing to fear. It is three injections in the arm. This is given when the bite is received, 7 days later and 21 days later. The shots are no more painful than a tetanus shot. Side affects are mild and usually of no concern. The horror stories of the "days" are long gone. There is absolutely no excuse to risk contracting a deadly disease.

Rabies is nothing for us to fear or alter our lives for. Human contraction of the disease is extremely rare because of our precautions and modern medicine. But it is something we should be aware of and know how to deal with...for our sake and the animal's.

National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association
14 N. 7th Ave
St. Cloud, MN 56303-4766

Go on to Action For Animals
Return to 8 September 1999 Issue
Return to Newsletters

** Fair Use Notice**
This document may contain copyrighted material, use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owners. I believe that this not-for-profit, educational use on the Web constitutes a fair use of the copyrighted material (as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law). If you wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Home Page




Your comments and inquiries are welcome

This site is hosted and maintained by:
The Mary T. and Frank L. Hoffman Family Foundation
Thank you for visiting

Since date.gif (991 bytes)