Vegan Health ArticlesThe Atkins Scientific Research Deceit and Disappointment
A Vegan Health Article from

These vegan health articles are presented to assist you in taking a pro-active part in your own health.

See Health Position and Disclaimer



1) Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, McGuckin BG, Brill C, Mohammed BS, Szapary PO, Rader DJ, Edman JS, Klein S. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2082-90.

2) Stern L, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, Chicano KL, Daily DA, McGrory J, Williams M, Gracely EJ, Samaha FF. The Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Conventional Weight Loss Diets in Severely Obese Adults: One-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):778-785.

3) Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, Chicano KL, Daily DA, McGrory J, Williams T, Williams M, Gracely EJ, Stern L. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2074-81.

4) Yancy WS Jr, Olsen MK, Guyton JR, Bakst RP, Westman EC. A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):769-777.

5) Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D'Alessio DA. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;88(4):1617-23.

6) Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS. Very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets affect fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia differently in overweight men. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):880-5.

7) Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, Scheett TP, Kraemer WJ. An isoenergetic very low carbohydrate diet improves serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and postprandial pipemic responses compared with a low fat diet in normal weight, normolipidemic women. J Nutr. 2003 Sep;133(9):2756-61.

8) Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, DiPasquale C, Roti M, Pumerantz A, Kraemer WJ. Comparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Apr;23(2):177-84.

9) Sondike SB, Copperman N, Jacobson MS. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. J Pediatr. 2003 Mar;142(3):253-8.

10) Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, Tomlin KF, Perkins CE. Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. Am J Med. 2002 Jul;113(1):30-6.

11) Sharman MJ, Kraemer WJ, Love DM, Avery NG, Gomez AL, Scheett TP, Volek JS. A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men. J Nutr. 2002 Jul;132(7):1879-85.

12) Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Love DM, Avery NG, Gomez AL, Scheett TP, Kraemer WJ. Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Metabolism. 2002 Jul;51(7):864-70.

13) Volek JS, Gomez AL, Kraemer WJ. Fasting lipoprotein and postprandial triacylglycerol responses to a low-carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Jun;19(3):383-91.

14) Kwiterovich PO Jr, Vining EP, Pyzik P, Skolasky R Jr, Freeman JM. Effect of a high-fat ketogenic diet on plasma levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in children. JAMA. 2003 Aug 20;290(7):912-20.

15) Alford BB, Blankenship AC, Hagen RD. The effects of variations in carbohydrate, protein, and fat content of the diet upon weight loss, blood values, and nutrient intake of adult obese women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990 Apr;90(4):534-40.

16) Gutierrez M, Akhavan M, Jovanovic L, Peterson CM. Utility of a short-term 25% carbohydrate diet on improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998 Dec;17(6):595-600.

17) Hays JH, DiSabatino A, Gorman RT, Vincent S, Stillabower ME. Effect of a high saturated fat and no-starch diet on serum lipid subfractions in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Nov;78(11):1331-6.

18) Larosa JC, Fry AG, Muesing R, Rosing DR. Effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate dieting on plasma lipoproteins and body weight. J Am Diet Assoc. 1980 Sep;77(3):264-70.

19) Lean ME, Han TS, Prvan T, Richmond PR, Avenell A. Weight loss with high and low carbohydrate 1200 kcal diets in free living women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997 Apr;51(4):243-8.

20) Willi SM, Oexmann MJ, Wright NM, Collop NA, Key LL Jr. The effects of a high-protein, low-fat, ketogenic diet on adolescents with morbid obesity: body composition, blood chemistries, and sleep abnormalities. Pediatrics. 1998 Jan;101(1 Pt 1):61-7.

21) Dandona P. Editorial. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:179-179.

22) Freedland E.S. A Tribute to Robert C. Atkins, M.D. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:181-182.

23) Atkins V. The Robert C. Atkins, M.D. Issue. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:183-184.

24) Aljada A.; Mohanty P.; Dandona P. Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Heart Disease Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:185-188.

25) Feinman R.D.; Makowske M. Metabolic Syndrome and Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets in the Medical School Biochemistry Curriculum. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:189-197.

26) Bell S.J.; Sears B. A Proposal for a New National Diet: A Low-Glycemic Load Diet with a Unique Macronutrient Composition. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:199-208.

27) Feinman R.D.; Fine E.J. Thermodynamics and Metabolic Advantage of Weight Loss Diets. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:209-219.

28) Bailes Jr. J.R.; Strow M.T.; Werthammer J.; McGinnis R.A.; Elitsur Y. Effect of Low-Carbohydrate, Unlimited Calorie Diet on the Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Prospective Controlled Study. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:221-225.

29) Hickey J.T.; Hickey L.; Yancy Jr. W.S.; Hepburn J.; Westman E.C. Clinical Use of a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet to Treat the Dyslipidemia of the Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:227-232.

30) Vernon M.C.; Mavropoulos J.; Transue M.; Yancy Jr W.S.; Westman E.C. Clinical Experience of a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet: Effect on Diabetes Mellitus. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:233-237.

31) Yancy Jr. W.S.; Vernon M.C.; Westman E.C. A Pilot Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:239-243.

32) Dissertations. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1: 245-252.

33) Jequier E, Bray GA. Low-fat diets are preferred. Am J Med. 2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:41S-46S.

34) Astrup A, Astrup A, Buemann B, Flint A, Raben A. Low-fat diets and energy balance: how does the evidence stand in 2002? Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 May;61(2):299-309.

35) Shick SM, Wing RR, Klem ML, McGuire MT, Hill JO, Seagle H. Persons successful at long-term weight loss and maintenance continue to consume a low-energy, low-fat diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998 Apr;98(4):408-13.

36) Wing R. Successful weight loss maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr. 2001;21:323-41.

37) Wyatt HR, Grunwald OK, Mosca CL, Klem ML, Wing RR, Hill JO (2002). Long-term weight loss and breakfast in subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity Research; 10:78-82.

38) McDougall J, Litzau K, Haver E, Saunders V, Spiller GA. Rapid reduction of serum cholesterol and blood pressure by a twelve-day, very low fat, strictly vegetarian diet. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Oct;14(5):491-6.

39) Beard CM, Barnard RJ, Robbins DC, Ordovas JM, Schaefer EJ. Effects of diet and exercise on qualitative and quantitative measures of LDL and its susceptibility to oxidation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1996 Feb;16(2):201-7.

40) Aldana SG, Whitmer WR, Greenlaw R, Avins AL, Salberg A, Barnhurst M, Fellingham G, Lipsenthal L. Cardiovascular risk reductions associated with aggressive lifestyle modification and cardiac rehabilitation. Heart Lung. 2003 Nov-Dec;32(6):374-82.

41) Barnard RJ. Effects of life-style modification on serum lipids. Arch Intern Med. 1991 Jul;151(7):1389-94.

42) Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Brown SE, Gould KL, Merritt TA, Sparler S, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, Kirkeeide RL, Hogeboom C, Brand RJ. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1998 Dec 16;280(23):2001-7.

43) Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Schoenhagen P, Brown BG, Ganz P, Vogel RA, Crowe T, Howard G, Cooper CJ, Brodie B, Grines CL, DeMaria AN; REVERSAL Investigators. Effect of intensive compared with moderate lipid-lowering therapy on progression of coronary atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Mar 3;291(9):1071-80.

44) St Jeor ST, Howard BV, Prewitt TE, Bovee V, Bazzarre T, Eckel RH; Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Dietary protein and weight reduction: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001 Oct 9;104(15):1869-74

45) Bray GA, Popkin BM.. Dietary fat intake does affect obesity! Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Dec;68(6):1157-73.

46) Lichtenstein AH, Kennedy E, Barrier P, Danford D, Ernst ND, Grundy SM, Leveille GA, Van Horn L, Williams CL, Booth SL. Dietary fat consumption and health. Nutr Rev. 1998 May;56(5 Pt 2):S3-19.

47) Reddy ST. Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002 Aug;40(2):265-74.

48) Herzberg GZ, Fivush BA, Kinsman SL, Gearhart JP. Urolithiasis associated with the ketogenic diet. J Pediatr. 1990 Nov;117(5):743-5.

49) Horswill CA, Hickner RC, Scott JR, Costill DL, Gould D. Weight loss, dietary carbohydrate modifications, and high intensity, physical performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990 Aug;22(4):470-6.

50) Keith RE, O'Keeffe KA, Blessing DL, Wilson GD. Alterations in dietary carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake and mood state in trained female cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991 Feb;23(2):212-6.

51) Filaire E, Maso F, Degoutte F, Jouanel P, Lac G. Food restriction, performance, psychological state and lipid values in judo athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2001 Aug;22(6):454-9.

52) Wing RR, Vazquez JA, Ryan CM. Cognitive effects of ketogenic weight-reducing diets. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995 Nov;19(11):811-6.

53) Hoyt CS, Billson FA. Optic neuropathy in ketogenic diet. Br J Ophthalmol. 1979 Mar;63(3):191-4.

54) Zhao Q, Stafstrom CE, Fu DD, Hu Y, Holmes GL. Detrimental effects of the ketogenic diet on cognitive function in rats. Pediatr Res. 2004 Mar;55(3):498-506.

55) Ballaban-Gil K, Callahan C, O'Dell C, Pappo M, Moshe S, Shinnar S. Complications of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 1998 Jul;39(7):744-8.

56) Best TH, Franz DN, Gilbert DL, Nelson DP, Epstein MR. Cardiac complications in pediatric patients on the ketogenic diet. Neurology. 2000 Jun 27;54(12):2328-30.

57) Hays NP, Starling RD, Liu X, Sullivan DH, Trappe TA, Fluckey JD, Evans WJ. Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition, and fat distribution in older men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 26;164(2):210-7.

58) Mueller-Cunningham WM, Quintana R, Kasim-Karakas SE. An ad libitum, very low-fat diet results in weight loss and changes in nutrient intakes in postmenopausal women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Dec;103(12):1600-6.

59) Weisburger J. Eat to live, not live to eat. Nutrition. 2000; 16:767-73.

60) Kenny J. Very-low-fat diets do not necessarily promote small, dense LDL particles. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70:423-25.

61) Sehayek E, Nath C, Heinemann T, McGee M, Seidman CE, Samuel P, Breslow JL. U-shape relationship between change in dietary cholesterol absorption and plasma lipoprotein responsiveness and evidence for extreme interindividual variation in dietary cholesterol absorption in humans. J Lipid Res. 1998 Dec;39(12):2415-22.

62) Connor WE, Hodges RE, Bleiler RE. Effect of dietary cholesterol upon serum lipids in man. J Lab Clin Med. 1961 Mar;57:331-42.

63) McDougall J. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Mar;79(3):431

64) Sacks FM, Salazar J, Miller L, Foster JM, Sutherland M, Samonds KW, Albers JJ, Kass EH. Ingestion of egg raises plasma low density lipoproteins in free-living subjects. Lancet. 1984 Mar 24;1(8378):647-9.

65) McDougall, J. The McDougall Plan. New Win, 1983.

66) McMurry MP, Cerqueira MT, Connor SL, Connor WE. Changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels and body weight in Tarahumara Indians after consumption of an affluent diet. N Engl J Med. 1991 Dec 12;325(24):1704-8.

67) Anderson JW, Konz EC, Jenkins DJ. Health advantages and disadvantages of weight-reducing diets: a computer analysis and critical review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5):578-90.

Return to The Atkins Scientific Research Deceit and Disappointment

Return to Vegan Health Articles
Visit Food Hazards in Animal Flesh and By-products Health Position and Disclaimer

We began this archive as a means of assisting our visitors in answering many of their health and diet questions, and in encouraging them to take a pro-active part in their own health. We believe the articles and information contained herein are true, but are not presenting them as advice. We, personally, have found that a whole food vegan diet has helped our own health, and simply wish to share with others the things we have found. Each of us must make our own decisions, for it's our own body. If you have a health problem, see your own physician.