Resources & Bibliography
. Genesis 37:10, 11. NIV.
. Genesis 37:34, 35. TEV.
. Genesis 39:6. TEV.
. Genesis 39:21-23. TEV.
. Genesis 41:33-36.
. Genesis 41:39-43. TEV.
. Genesis 41:42,43. TEV.
. Genesis 47:14. TEV
. Genesis 47:15. TEV
. Genesis 47:17. TEV
. Genesis 47:20. TEV
. Genesis 47:21. TEV.
. Exodus l:7.
. Exodus 1:9, 10. TEV.
. There is much scholarly debate regarding the length of time that the Israelites remained in Egypt. They range from a claim that it was about 240 years, to a belief that it was closer to 400 years. But there is more general agreement that the Israelites suffered oppression at the hands of Pharaoh for at least eighty years.
. He had been loyal to Potiphar and worked for his best interest; he had
served the prison warden well and his supportive role in relation to both these
men made life much easier for them. He also demonstrated concern and empathy for
the royal cupbearer at a critical time in that man's life.
. The name of Moses's mother is not given in the biblical account.
. Exodus 2:5, 6, 10. JB.
. Exodus 6:12. AMP
. The book of Exodus mentions gnats, flies, locusts, frogs, hail, boils, and darkness.
. Exodus 12:30. AMP
. The Bible reports that "600,00 men on foot, besides women and children," left Egypt.
. Exodus 16:3. NIV.
. Exodus 17:4. NIV.
. Exodus 32:1. NIV.
. Scholars--rather coyly--continue to refer to the ancient worship of sexuality as "fertility" rites, implying that it centered around a way of insuring that devotees were able to bring forth children. This implication is just as inaccurate as it would be to describe the modern-day cult of sexuality as a celebration of fertility, rather than of sexual activity.
. Exodus 32:5, 6. NIV.
. Exodus 32:19. NIV.
. Numbers 13:28, 31. NIV.
. Numbers 14:8, 9. NIV.
. Joshua 5:6. JB.
. Jeremiah 2:7. JB.
. Joshua 5:8. TEV.
. Joshua 6:20, 21. TEV.
. The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible, H. S. Gehman (ed.)(Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1976), p. 529.
. Judges, 4:21, 23. NEB.
. Judges 5:24, 26, 27. NEB. The complete Song of Deborah is contained in the fifth chapter of the book of Judges.
. Judges 11:3. TEV.
. Judges 11:30, 31. TEV.
. Judges 11:35. TEV.
. The International Bible Commentary, edited by F. F. Bruce (ed.)(Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1986), p. 329.
. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1979), vol. II, p. 984.
. Judges 8:9. TEV.
. That law stated, "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" and it was not a command to seek revenge. Rather, it was a law instituted to put limits on those who sought unlimited vengeance. It was put into effect to counteract the kind of lawlessness that men had previously justified. (See the boast of Lamech in the book of Genesis, 4:23, 24.) But even with that law in place, men like Gideon continued to indulge an inordinate appetite for revenge.
. Judges 8:30. TEV.
. Genesis 2:24.
. I Samuel: 15:20, 21. NIV.
. I Samuel 15:23. NIV.
. I Samuel 15:24, 25. NIV.
. I Samuel 16:18. NIV.
. I Samuel 18:5. NIV.
. I Samuel 23:17, 18. NIV.
. I Samuel 22:2. JB.
. At its peak, David's army of mercenaries numbered about 600.
. I Samuel 27:8-12. JB.
. Ruth, who was not Jewish, is an exception. Her story is told in the book of the Bible that bears her name.
. Deuteronomy. 17:17.
. Incest: David's son Amnon raped his sister Tamar (II Samuel 13:1-22). Fratricide: Absalom had Amnon murdered (II Samuel 13:28, 29) and Solomon had Adjoniah murdered (I 2:25). Attempted Patricide: During Absalom's attempted takeover of the kingdom (II Samuel 16:11). Public rape: Absalom's men "pitched a tent and in the sight of all Israel Absolom went to his father's concubines" (II Samuel 16:22-25).
. II Samuel 21:9. NIV.
. I Kings 2:8, 9. NIV. Shimei had to die for the crime of calling David a "scoundrel" and a "man of blood" (II Samuel 16:7).
. I Kings 12:4. JB.
. I Kings 12:14. JB.
. Although Ahab had only one wife for whom he built an altar, he is condemned, without reservation. But Solomon, who had numerous altars built for his 700 wives, continues to be treated with respect and looked to as a source of wisdom and godliness.
. I Kings 18:19. JB.
. I Kings 18:36-38. TEV.
. I Kings 18:40. NEB.
. II Kings 2:23, 24. NAS.
. Exodus 21:24, 25 and Deuteronomy 19:21.
. II Kings 9:6-8. TEV.
. II Kings 10:ll. TEV.
. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, vol 2, p. 981.
. Deuteronomy 24:16.
. Samuel was the prophet who anointed both Saul and David as king of Israel.
. Isaiah 59:3-4, 7-8, 14-15. NEB.
. Isaiah 66:12, 13. NAS.
. Hosea ll:1, 3, 4. NEB.
. Micah 6:8. NAS.
. Micah 4:3; Isaiah 10:2; Isaiah 1:11, 15, 16. NIV.
. Amos 5:21, 22, 24. JB.
. Isaiah 1:11, 14, 16, 17. NAS.
. Jeremiah 7:3, 4, 6. NAS.
. During the same time the name of Abraham was constantly invoked as founding Father.
. Isaiah 51:1, 2. NAS.
. Isaiah 52:1, 2. NIV.
. Genesis 3:16. NIV.
. Isaiah 40:1, 2. NIV.
. Isaiah 51:17, 21-23. NIV.
. Micah 4:3, 4. NAS.
. Isaiah 60:1. New World Translation.(The official version of Jeohvah's Witnesses, a group that remains determinedly patriarchal. This translation is one of the few that includes the words "O woman." Other translations have ignored the importance of the text and the fact that it is addressed to the female. Still others have inserted a word that does not appear in the text,and translate the verse to read "Arise, Jerusalem." In all these instances, the translation tries to obscure the fact that the summons and the call is to womankind.
. Isaiah 60:3, 4. NEB.
. Isaiah: 62:1, 2. NWT.
. Any infertility within a marriage was regarded as the fault of the woman. This is understandable in a culture that chose to believe the only contribution a woman made to the production of children was to provide a fertile field in which the male could sow his seed. Nevertheless, women were blamed when they gave birth to a daughter instead of a son.
. Isaiah 54:1-3. NEB.
. Isaiah 40:9,11. NWT.
. Micah 4:2-4. NAS.
. Hosea 3:18, 19. NIV.
. Most scholars date the development of Judaism, as it is known today, to the time of the Babylonian Exile.
. Named for the capital city of the Northern kingdom.
. Ezra 4:2. JB. "Since the time of Esarhaddon" represented 150 years.
. The Bible offers two different explanations for the delay in building that took place between 538 and 520 B.C. The book of Ezra blames the harassment of the natives for the delay, but the book of Haggai (1:1-10) blames the indifference of the Jewish people themselves for the delay.
. Ezra 3:3-6. JB.
. Isaiah 1:11, 13-16. JB.
. Ezra 6:17, 18. JB.
. Those who preserved the biblical story blamed women for male idolatry. Even an enormously powerful and authoritarian leader like King Solomon, who did precisely what he wanted to do, whenever he wanted to do it, is said to have been corrupted by the influence of his foreign wives.
. The policy instituted by Ezra was even more severe than that contained in the Deuteronomic code, which said, "You shall not detest an Edomite ...you shall not detest an Egyptian...The sons of the third generation who are born to them may enter the assembly of the Lord." (emphasis added) Deuteronomy 23:8. NAS.
. Ezra 10:7-8. NIV.
. Ezra 10:16, 17. NIV.
. Ezra 10:15. NIV.
. This is the event that is still celebrated by the Feast of Chanukah.
. The rule of the Maccabean kings is also known as the Hasmonean Dynasty.
. The dispute took place during the Feast of Tabernacles when, in his role of high priest, Janneus deliberately violated Pharisaic ritual during the religious ceremonies.
. Flavius Josephus, Wars of the Jews (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1978), 1:4.1-6.
. But it is the Temple that Herod built whose western wall still stands today--the "wailing wall" to which Jews from all over the world make their pilgrimage.
. For a thorough discussion of this topic see Joachim Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1969), chapters 12 and 13.
. Called Idumeans by the Greeks, they were the Edomites who were the descendants of Esau, twin brother of Jacob.
. This included both the written Law and the oral tradition.
. Previous temples at Jerusalem had not been constructed with separate quarters for women.
. A modern Jewish scholar, C.G. Montefiore, has taken orthodox Judaism to task because so many centuries later, it still has not "had the courage and good sense to remove [this prayer] from their prayer books." C. G. Montefiore and H. Loewe, A Rabbinic Anthology (Philadelphia, 1960), pp. XVIII-XIX.
. Genesis 6:11.
. This was baptism by immersion, not by "sprinkling."
. In Hebrew, the Spirit of God is feminine, but when the Gospels were written in Greek, men decided to make it a neuter noun. After neutering the female Spirit, they then began to refer to it as "He." For a more detailed discussion of the nature of the Holy Spirit, see the Appendix.
. Matthew 3:16, 17. JB.
. Genesis 8:8-11.
. Genesis 1:26, 27.
. Luke 4:1, 2. JB.
. Luke 4:13. JB.
. Isaiah 61;1, 2. JB.
. Matthew 4:23-25.
. Luke 6:27, 28, 32-35. NAS.
. Previously, there was no limit on the revenge that men sought. Lamech, a descendant of Cain, brags that if someone hits him he retaliates by killing that person. And he does not limit himself to a one-for-one retaliation: he says that he is avenged seven times seventy. Genesis 4:23, 24.
. Matthew 5:38-39. NAS
. Matthew 5:3. JB. The word gentle is also defined as nonviolent.
. The author has written a book that deals at length with the sacrificial cult and the prophetic call for its abolishment. The Slaughter of Terrified Beasts: A Biblical Basis for the Humane Treatment of Animals (Sarasota: Viatoris Publications, 1988).
. John 2:13-16. NIV.
. Luke 12:6. AMP.
. Deuteronomy 10:16.
. Jeremiah 4: 4. NAS.
. Deuteronomy 10:14-19. NIV.
. Luke 11:28. NAS.
. Mark 3:31-35. NIV.
. John ll:5.
. Luke 10:39-41. NIV.
. Rabbi Eliezer, first century A.D., who gave credit to his predecessors for these statements.
. This association of women with uncleanness is so strong that even today, observant Jewish men will refuse to shake hands with a woman because she might be in a state of ritual impurity: she may be menstruating.
. Encyclopaedia Judaica, "Purity," vol. 13, col. 1405.
. The scribes were the theologians of their time, the professionals who studied and interpreted religious law.
. Matthew 15:7-9. TEV. The Gospel writer is quoting Isaiah 29:13.
. Matthew 23:23, 24. JB.
. Matthew 21:31.
. Matthew 23:28. NIV.
. Matthew 6:1-6.
. Matthew 20:25-28. NEB.
. John 13:2-16. JB.
. Some slaves also had to perform this service but in the hierarchy of slavery, only the lowliest would be told to do it.
. Matthew 26:55. TEV.
. Matthew 5:39, 44.
. Matthew 26:52. TEV.
. Luke 8:1-3; Matthew 27:55.
. According to Leviticus 15:25-30, she was ceremonially unclean and Law-abiding Jews would have to shun her.
. The healing of the menstruous woman is reported in Luke 8:43-48.
. Matthew 5:16, 45, 48 and Matthew 23:9.
. Matthew 26:52.
.Matthew 24:1, 2.
. Jesus was crucified circa A.D. 30.
.The philosopher Bertrand Russell referred to Paul as "the inventor of christianity."
. Colossians 2:6, 7, 9, 11. NIV.
. Romans 2:28, 29. JB.
. Galatians 5:12. JB.
. Galatians 3:27, 28. TEV.
. Galatians 4:22, 31; 5:1. TEV.
. This date is approximate and assumes the crucifixion of Jesus to have taken place in A.D. 30.
. Galatians 2:16. JB.
. I Corinthians 14:34, 35. NIV.
. I Timothy 2:13.
. Neither Jacob, Joseph, nor David--among many other biblical heroes--was the firstborn.
. I Timothy 2:14. NIV.
. Genesis 3:6, 7.
. See L. Swidler, Women in Judaism (Metuchen, N.J: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1976), p.47
. In reality, women were not "excused" from studying Torah--they were forbidden to do so. That this was a taboo rather than an exemption became increasingly clear in rabbinic pronouncements of the kind that said it was an obscenity for women to study the Law and that Torah should "be burned rather than be given to a woman." (Swidler, p. 93, 94)
. I Timothy 2:14, 15. JB.
. Luke ll:27, 28. NAS.
. Tertullian, De Cultu Fem. 1,1.
. The Scripture he quotes more easily lends itself to an interpretation that women were "especially honored" by God because they were the first to see the risen Christ.
. St. Cyril of Alexandria, In Matthaeum.
. Isaiah 2:4 and Micah 4:3.
. (Justin, 1 Apol. 39; Irenaeus, Haer. 4:34.4; Tertullian, Iud. 3; Origen, Cels. 5:33; 3.7-8; Hippolytus, Trad. ap 17a; 19.)
In this book, references in parentheses are abbreviated: for Greek words the abbreviations are those in G. W. H. Lampe, Patristic Greek Lexicon (Oxford: Clarendon, 1961-1968); for Latin works, the abbreviations are those of A. Souter, A Glossary of Later Latin (Oxford: Clarendon, 1954).
. From Tertullian, On the Crown XI, ANF III, pp. 99-100. In this instance Tertullian is referring to the fact that Jesus died rather than inflict injury and declared, "He who lives by the sword shall die by the sword." Matthew 26:52.
. Because mainstream Christianity had not yet divided into Catholic and Protestant churches, no specific designation is given to the Christian Church that represented establishment religion until the Reformation.
. The Greek letters chi and rho, the first two letters of Christ's name.
. These blessings were frankly given in the hope that the recipients would be the ones to kill, and not be killed by, their enemies. Modern Christian apologists, however, claim that men go to war because they are imitating Christ, who gave his life for others and said "greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends" (John 15:13). But, of course, no soldier is trained to die on the battlefield. He is trained how to kill his enemy, not how to "lay down his life."
. His (in)famous slogan, "Cogite intrare!"--"Compel them to enter!"--assumed the same function as a battle cry.
. Augustine, De Trintate 7.10.
. I Corinthians ll:3, 7. NIV.
. Ephesians 5:22, 23. JB.
. The Albigensian heresy is typical of the kinds of beliefs espoused by various heretical sects. Historian Will Durant, in describing the nature of their heresy wrote, "They made the Sermon on the Mount the essence of their ethics. They were taught to love their enemies, to care for the sick and poor, always to keep the peace; force was never moral, even against infidels, capital punishment was a capitol crime."
. And in the year of our Lord 1986, a new edition of one of the most popular and widely read Bible commentaries makes the point that "one must recognize that almost all the heretical sects of Christendom number women among their leaders." F .F. Bruce (ed.), The International Bible Commentary,(Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1986), p. 1380. This commentary only repeats the information that is given to most seminarians and other students of religion, to help them recognize heresy when they come across it.
. The only Christians who spoke out against the Crusades were "heretics" like the Albigensians, who preached that those clergymen and laymen who encouraged the Crusaders to go off to battle, were themselves guilty of murder. Their opposition was crushed by Pope Innocent (sic) III, who called for a crusade against the heretics. Gathered in the town of Beziers, 20,000 men, women and children were slaughtered when their town was captured.
. H. Milman, History of Latin Christianity, New York: 1860), vol. IV, p. 251.
. There were eight Crusades, and they enjoyed a descending order of popularity and success.
. The Council of Ephesus (A.D. 431) first sanctioned the use of the title "Mother of God."
. I Timothy 2:5. JB.
. I Timothy 2:14, 15. JB.
. With sentiments like this (quoted from Documents of the Christian
Church), etched into its religious tradition, it is hardly surprising that a
"Christian" nation could give rise to the phenomenon of Nazi Germany. Like so
many other countries that claim Christian principles as their foundation, the
Christianity that is espoused is only another variation of the ancient, state
religion of machismo.
. The word Reason is capitalized because men believed that the use of Reason would redeem the world. Reasonable and enlightened men would establish a humane world order with freedom, equality, and justice for all. This faith in Reason as an instrument of human deliverance suffered a death blow in the 20th century.
. This method was based on the belief that by observation and with the use of reason, it was possible to discover social and political rules that operated in accordance with laws that were just as binding as those that governed the functioning of the natural world.
. His life spanned the century of the Enlightenment: 1712-1778.
. J.J. Rousseau, Emile: On Education. (1762)
. Will & Ariel Durant, The Story of Civilization, vol ix, "The Age of Voltaire," p.298, 299.
. Faced with the specter of Marie Curie doing the work that earned her a Nobel prize in physics, and then another in chemistry, Rousseau no doubt would have explained away her accomplishments in the same way he explained away the published works of literary women in his own time: the work was actually done by men. "We can always tell what [male] artist or friend holds the pen or pencil when they are at work; we know which discreet man of letters dictates their oracles in private. This trickery is unworthy of a decent woman."
. Although never accused of it, this formula for success from Emile sounds as though Rousseau plagiarized it from a manual on how to break a horse to harness.
. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex.
. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. This "scientific" observation was brought to its extreme conclusion in the writings of Friedreich Nietzsche.
. According to this reasoning, men would have been better at using their hands to sew, spin and embroider. But such a conclusion would have undermined the belief that women were born to those tasks.
. Calvin Green, A Summary View of the Millennial Church, 2nd ed.(Albany, N.Y.: C. Van Benthuysen, 1823), pp. 67, 68.
. Ibid., p. 259.
. In his letter to the Corinthians, St. Paul advanced this concept of Jesus as the second Adam (1 Corinthians 15: 45-47).
. A Summary View of the Millennial Church, pp. 27, 28.
. She died on September 8, 1784. A consensus held that she probably died as the result of a particularly violent attack on her person the year before when she was tied behind a horse and dragged for more than a mile over rough terrain. Resultant fractures to her skull had not been treated.
. A Summary View of the Millennial Church, p. 30.
. Ibid., p. 77.
. Historians, as well as Shaker contemporaries, have commented on the high profile that Shakerism enjoyed for many decades. "This new sightseeing Fad [circa 1815] was the most notable sign of a change in Shakerism, as well as in the prevailing attitude toward it. Shaker Villages were no longer just a local curiosity and suddenly appeared to merit a closer look. In the East and in the West, visiting a Shaker community--particularly on a Sunday--became a favorite outing for Americans." Doris Faber in The Perfect Life: The Shakers in America. A contemporary report of Sunday outings to the Shaker Villages is contained in a letter that Mary Baker Eddy wrote to her brother George, in 1836. "I will give you an abridged sketch of a gentleman, recently from Boston, now reading medicine with a doctor of this town...I met him a number of times at parties last winter and he invited me to go to the Shakers with him, but my superiors thought it would be a profanation of the sabbath."
. Conservative estimates place their number at more than 6,500 people at a time when there were twenty Shaker settlements.
. 1820 to 1860.
. Robert Peel, Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery, (Canada: Holt, Reinhardt & Winston, 1966), p. 318.
. This was a reference to the twelfth chapter of the book of Revelation, which tells "of a great sign that appeared in heaven: a woman, adorned with the sun." The Scripture goes on to tell how she flees to the wilderness because she is being persecuted, and how God keeps her in safety there.
. Sidney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History Of the American People, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972).
. English economist who later became a leader of the international movement for women's rights.
. One scholar, Henri Desroche, has pointed out that the relationship of Tolstoy to the Shakers is akin to the relationship between Tolstoy and Mahatma Gandhi, whose correspondence also dealt with the practicalities of trying to live a simple and non-violent life.
. In Shaker villages, females were not restricted to "womanly" occupations. They ran printing presses and pioneered techniques in animal husbandry and in agriculture. (The name SHAKER on a packet of seeds tagged it as the best possible purchase.) Women were also encouraged in their invention of various implements that made work easier and more productive for everybody.
. When Karl Marx was ill, and discouraged because his hoped-for social revolution had not taken place, Engels told him "Remember the Shakers!" It was a reminder that they, too, had a long, uphill, struggle before their message reached large numbers of people. This communication was the last that Engels had with Marx, who died soon after.
. This attitude regarding the regrettable "religious aberrations" of the Shakers, was held by many who looked to them as models for establishing their own utopian communities--both in Europe and in America--in the nineteenth century. Various men continued to hold this negative view of the religious component of Shakerism even though communities that were established without a religious foundation endured only briefly and then amidst great internal dissent.
. The Quaker activist Lucretia Coffin Mott was a co-convener of the meeting.
. Robert Peel, Mary Baker Eddy.
. They had been the most successful group to live in community with each other, and it was a time when various political, social, and religious groups were still interested in the establishment of communitarian lifestyles.
. Anna White and Leila Taylor, Shakerism, Its Meaning and Message, (Columbus, Ohio: Fred J. Heer, 1904).
. Sigmund Freud, The Taboo of Virginity, Collected Papers, Vol. IV (London, England: The Hogarth Press Ltd.).
. Karl Abraham, The Female Castration Complex. Freud had high praise for Abraham's work.
. Women were active in many of these causes, but at this point only men had the power to effect change.
. The social gospel is defined as "the application of the teachings of Jesus and the total message of the Christian salvation to society, the economic life and social institutions as well as to individuals." A Dictionary of Religion and Ethics, ed. Sailer Matthews and Gerald Birney Smith (New York: 1921), p. 416
. Matthew 25: 31-46. This social gospel of Christ echoes the prophetic message of Isaiah: "Remove the chains of oppression and the yoke of injustice and let the oppressed go free....If you give food to the hungry and satisfy those who are in need, then the darkness around you will turn to the brightness of noon." Isaiah 58:6, 7, 10. TEV.
. England was a leading force in implementing such laws. The abolition of slavery (1833), establishment of protective laws regarding children and laborers; the establishment of humane societies, and a host of other causes that have become part of the fabric of western civilization.
. Sigmund Freud credited Nietzsche as being one of the two men who most influenced his own development of the theory of psychoanalysis.
. The author is well aware of the negative connotation that the term "feminization of society" has for most people. But it is necessary to "feminize" society in order to achieve the necessary male/female balance.
. Thus Spake Zarathustra.
. Beyond Good and Evil.
. Beyond Good and Evil.
. In the United States, The Mormon Church, the Nation of Islam, and fundamentalist Protestantism are enjoying unprecedented growth.
. The Family Protection Act of 1967.
. There were also executions of women of the Baha'i faith, a religion that actively supports female equality. In 1983 ten Baha'i women were publicly executed as a warning to others. They included Iran's first female physicist, a concert pianist, and three college students.
. In a typical fundamentalist statement Tim LaHaye, an influential Christian minister-educator-author, urges men to be benevolent dictators. He writes: "Have you ever imagined what it would be like to be placed in submission to another human being on a 24-hour basis, 365 days a year--for life? That is exactly what God demands of your wife." His wife Beverly helps to implement this theology through a national organization--Concerned Women for America--a group that calls for a return to the kind of "traditional family values" taught by her husband.
. This "state religion" has been practiced since antiquity and its tenets
remain the same whether its adherents call themselves Pagans, Christians, or
. Matthew 10:35, 36. NIV.
. The same charge is now made about the women's movement.
. Matthew 9:16, 17 and Mark 2:21, 22.
. Matthew 19:29 and Mark 10:29.
. Jesus understood the slow nature of this process and used parables to convey this message. Matthew 13:31-33; 25:13.
. "No eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared." 1 Corinthians 2:9. NIV.
. Isaiah 11: 6, 7, 9.